Install Vqmod in OpenCart manually (2.5+)

Install Vqmod in OpenCart manually (2.5+)

1. Backup or make a duplicate of your existing installed OpenCart files and folders in safe place.
2.Download the latest version Vqmod for Opencart  from:
3. Using FTP, upload the “vqmod” folder from the zip to the root of your opencart store.Be sure the vqmod folder and the vqmod/vqcache folders are writable (either 755 or 777).
* Also be sure index.php and admin/index.php are writable.
 + If not sure which you need, first try 755.
 + If you get errors about permissions, then try 777.
4. Now, we need to modify two files. One is /index.php and another one is /admin/index.php file.
  Edit your  index.php
// Startup
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘startup.php’);
// Application Classes
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/customer.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/currency.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/tax.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/weight.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/length.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/cart.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/affiliate.php’);
// vQmod
// VQMODDED Startup
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘startup.php’));
// Application Classes
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/customer.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/currency.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/tax.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/weight.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/length.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/cart.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/affiliate.php’));
 Edit your admin/index.php file
// Startup
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘startup.php’);
// Application Classes
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/currency.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/user.php’));
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/weight.php’);
require_once(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/length.php’);
// vQmod
// VQMODDED Startup
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘startup.php’));
// Application Classes
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/currency.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/user.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/weight.php’));
require_once(VQMod::modCheck(DIR_SYSTEM . ‘library/length.php’));

5. vQmod is now ready to use. Upload desired xml script to ‘vqmod/xml’ folder
6. Load your store homepage and verify it works.

Install Vqmod in Opencart autoinstaller.

Install Vqmod in Opencart  autoinstaller.

1. Backup or make a duplicate of your existing installed OpenCart files and folders in safe place.
2. Download the latest version of Vqmod from:
look at vqmod for opencart and download latest version.
3. Using FTP, upload the “vqmod” folder from the zip to the root of your opencart store.Make sure vqmod/vqcache folders are writable (either 755 or 777).
* Also be sure index.php and admin/index.php are writable.
 + If not sure which you need, first try 755.
 + If you get errors about permissions, then try 777.
5. You should get a success message.( If not, check permissions above and try again.)
6. vQmod is now ready to use. Upload desired xml script to ‘vqmod/xml’ folder
7. Load your store homepage and verify it works.


Govt says No more electricity bills to your home! Here is why…

Govt says No more electricity bills to your home! Here is why…

Electricity bills reaching homes will be a history soon as government is currently planning to revolutionise the entire billing system by making all meters smart prepaid in the next three years. “In next three years metering will go smart prepaid, and gone will be the days of bills reaching your house. So need of the hour is to scale up manufacturing of smart prepaid meters and to bring down their prices.” an official release reported citing  R K Singh, Minister of State(IC) for Power and New & Renewable Energy.

During an interaction with smart meter manufacturers, the minister also said that there is a need to scale up the manufacturing of these meters as the the coming few years will pose huge demand for them. The smart prepaid meters should be made mandatory after a particular date, the minister also advised the officials of the power ministry.

The plan of the government to fast introduce smart meters in the country will not only revolutionise the power sector but also reduce AT&C losses, ensure better health of DISCOMs, incentivise energy conservation and ease bill payments and also generate skilled employment for the youth, the minister said.

It was also decided in the meeting that the technical aspects will be further deliberated into in consultation with meter manufacturers, DISCOMs and system integrators.

Meanwhile, the government announced Rs 1.4 lakh crore KUSUM scheme to promote the use of solar power among farmers. The scheme will be implemented from next month. According to the government, 4 crore families targeted under the SAUBHAGYA scheme would get electricity connections by December, ahead of the March 2019 deadline.

“The KUSUM (Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Utthaan Mahaabhiyan) will be implemented in July. Under this scheme farmers would be provided with solar water pumps,” the minister of power and new & renewable energy said at a press conference. Under the scheme, the government has planned to provide 27.5 lakh solar pumps (17.50 lakh standalone + 10 Lakh Grid-connected).

Source:- financialexpress

Best Electronics Markets in Delhi

Best Electronics Markets in Delhi

1. Gaffar Market in Karol Bagh

Also known as Grey Market

Also known as Grey Market

Launched in 1952, Gaffar Market, a.k.a. Grey Market, offers thousands of electrical and electronic items, especially mobile phones. Buy a second-hand iPhone for Rs. 10,000 with a one-year warranty.

The bigger stores here also offer huge discounts on new products. Hundreds come here for imported items like PlayStations, home appliances and other gadgets.

Items become available here even before being officially released in India and always sell like hotcakes. They have every big brand that exists out there, mostly made in China. Some shops offer goods at half prices with no bill or paperwork, and no warranties; so, caveat emptor and do drive a hard bargain!

2. Wazirpur Commercial Complex in Azadpur

Once a pottery market, now popular for electronics

Once a pottery market, now popular for electronics

Old timers in Delhi will probably tell you that you can go here to buy pottery. But, those days are over. If you are looking to buy a computer, you mustn’t miss out on the Wazirpur Commercial market. Many computer showrooms and service centers are located here. Desktops and laptops as well as their parts and accessories, are all available here at low prices.

The market has its own website, just like the Gaffar Market and you can access it check out the names of the shops and the prices they are offering on the items in their stock.

3. Palika Bazaar in Connaught Place

A great place for gadgets

A great place for gadgets

This underground air-conditioned bazaar is always crowded and busy with every shopkeeper trying to get you to enter their shop and yield to their pressure sales and buy their wares. Their prices are reasonable and deal-closing a priority.

Game consoles and game CDs are the specialty here, and piracy is quite rampant. The market also has various games related items, accessories and other paraphernalia. This is also the only market in Delhi which caters to customers looking to buy gadgets and toys for adults. Bargaining is necessary when buying items like used cameras, mobile phones or CDs of pirated movies.

4. Lajpat Rai Market in Chandni Chowk

Lajpat Rai Market caters to small businesses

Lajpat Rai Market caters to small businesses

This is a B2B marketplace for all kinds of electronic items in Delhi and brings manufacturers, importers, traders and distributors into close proximity. The items here are a mix of cheap imitations and truly big brands. A savvy customer could find a real deal on items here.

With the influx of visitors and health tourists from the Middle East and Afghanistan, the market here has many interesting items including Chinese products, replicated phones, cameras, CCTVs and home security equipment among other things. Better to check products thoroughly before buying and strike as good a bargain as possible.

5. Nehru Place

Be sure to bargain at Nehru Place

Be sure to bargain at Nehru Place

For the residents of Delhi, this is the go-to place for getting a broken mobile or computer fixed. This market also sells software, both new and pirated as well as CDs and DVDs. Everything comes discounted, including computer parts, phones, DVDs and CDs and all forms of electronic entertainment products and their accessories.

You can buy every computer part you will need, to assemble your own computer at this market; whether branded or unbranded. Quality of your purchase depends on your budget. When buying any product here as with any of these markets, it is necessary to adopt a ‘Trust, but Verify’ approach.

6. Bhagirath Palace in Chandni Chowk

 The best place for computer parts

The best place for computer parts

The Bhagirath Palace is a wholesale electronic market in Delhi that caters to anyone who wants to buy any tech gadget or have it repaired. Home appliances, personal electronics and lighting systems top the list of things you can get, when you come here.

You can also get motherboard and home theatre systems. This market is not really for retail buyers and caters more to buyers who buy in bulk. The shops hold large stocks and are willing to offer generous deals, it all depends on your ability to bargain well. It is definitely worth a visit if you happen to visit the Old City or Chandni Chowk.

7. Janpath Market in Connaught Place

 A relatively new electronic market

A relatively new electronic market

The Janpath Market, known earlier as Queen’s Way, has a range of boutique stores selling products like clothing, handicrafts and jewelry which can be purchased at reasonable prices, if you know how to bargain right. The market is just venturing into electronic products and is yet to get established in a big way in this segment.

Go ahead and have fun shopping at these wholesale electronics markets in Delhi at unbelievable prices from any of these markets, but only after you have verified their specifications and performance to your complete satisfaction. There may be times when you feel that the price warrants a use-and-throw approach and makes it worth the risk, because -believe it or not – that’s also quite a possibility with some of these items.

10 things I learnt about selling online in India that made me a marketplace millionaire in 2 months

10 things I learnt about selling online in India that made me a marketplace millionaire in  2 months

If you’re reading this, chances are that you are contemplating starting your own online business. Marketplaces like Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal are giving tremendous opportunities to young students, housewives as well as small shop owners to scale their businesses and earn good money. However, there are various factors that one needs to look at before starting up an online business. Without these in mind, one could dig deep into losses.

My only motive in writing this article is to promote the spirit of entrepreneurship and share my experiences on what I did that made me succeed in my online business. What worked for me may not work for you, but I can assure you that if you follow the 10 principles listed below, chances are, you will not lose any money.

  1. Try and sell something unique.

Let’s start with the obvious. There are 10,000 bags and 20,000 T-shirts already listed on marketplaces. If you start out with these products and think that your design is better than the designs of those already listed, chances are you’re wrong. It will be difficult for you to even get discovered. Find a product category that is yet untapped, and make sure your product is unique compared to other sellers’ products.

When I searched for umbrellas online, all I could see were boring black and floral umbrellas. I wanted to change it. I wanted to see cool doodles on the  umbrella that could make one feel connected to the rains. No one in India had done this before. But the idea connected to the audience.

Think of a commonplace product – could be anything around you and then work on how you could make it different so that it is more valuable than other sellers reselling it. Invest in good design as it has the power to turn something that was once just practical and impersonal into something meaningful and captivating.

  1. Use search keywords to your advantage

No one knows you exist online. Customers buy from a ‘Flipkart’ or an ‘Amazon.’ They search for the product they want and are given a bouquet of options, based on various factors and codes, search keywords being an important one. Getting into the mind of the customer by figuring out what you would search forif you wanted to buy something is a good way to go about it. Based on that, list as many search keywords as you can, including typos.Use everything related to your product.

For our product, we used 100s of keywords. Some of them include: umbrella, umbrella, umbrellas,designer umbrella, designer umbrellas, unique umbrella, monsoon umbrella, strong umbrella, designed umbrella, long umbrella, short umbrella, light umbrella, big umbrella, unique designed umbrella, uniquely designed umbrellas, and so on.

Don’t underestimate the power of search keywords.

  1. Marketing on Marketplaces

Majority of startups that set up shop online expect the listing process would be immediately followed by hundreds of orders.  But, there is no magic to make that happen. You have to make it happen. You have to stand apart and be discovered in a heavily crowded virtual mall. It’s very difficult to market your product on marketplaces as you actually don’t interact with your customer. You have to think smart and focus on making your products visible. Do this by taking utmost care and listing every minute detail about the product while filling excel sheets at the time of listing. Go through seller help guides on each marketplace. Make a detailed plan. Invest in an ace photographer, as photography is all you have to lure your customers in. Make photography your differentiator. Ninety per cent of your marketing will be done when you’re at the stage of listing the product.

  1. Think a step ahead of your competition

Investing in the right resources is crucial in beating your competition. Think about what your competitors think. Go a step ahead and beat them at it.You have to compete with existing sellers. You know what it is being online. Majority of the sellers on marketplaces are shopkeepers who have a set pattern and employees. These are the ones who may not invest in design and photography as they do it as a business on the side and follow a more traditional approach. You shouldn’t: use innovative ideas and disrupt the traditional sellers. Use social media to your advantage. Make use of the digital knowledge you have, that your competition doesn’t.

  1. Contact employees of marketplaces and stay in touch with them

    Use all social media platforms, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter to get in touch with them.You should call the product managers/category managers and show them you’re enthusiastic about your product. Appreciate them for doing their job well and make them believe in your product as they will be crucial in getting it promoted. A lot of marketplaces help creative entrepreneurs increase their sales by promoting their products. Make them believe in your potential and convince them you mean business. Politeness and humility go a long way, as well!

  2. PersevereKeep the ‘Aaj Pooja, kal koi Dooja’ attitude with your failures

Be realistic. Not every girl you meet will like you. Likewise, not every business meeting will be a successful one. As you may move on from one failed love interest, do the same while dealing with business as well, by focusing on the next sale instead of mourning the failed previous one.

There will always be roadblocks but one must learn to skirt past them and move on. The road has not been smooth for me. I have faced a lot of failure. Once, after intense persuasion, I managed to crack a meeting with a category manager from a reputed e-commerce company. After a long wait, I managed to meet her, but the margins and commissions the company was asking for along with the minimum quantity it required were astoundingly huge. The deal failed. It was a big company and I was just a person with an idea that needed to be executed. Likewise, I have got huge orders confirmed via mail but the buyer chickens out at the last moment. I was frustrated but realised I couldn’t control the situation. I focused my attention on sellingmy stock through some other channel.

  1. Play around with the media. Be persistent. Sell them stories.

Don’t pay extravagant sums of money to bloggers, in the hopes that they will sell it to the audience. Instead, aim at them making recommendations. Make people who are influential speak about your product. Gift them what you make. Make them like and believe in your idea.

For my product, I got free press and got featured in leading dailies such as DNAMid-DayHT CaféFree Press Journal etc. I didn’t sell them my product. I sold them my story. The press always looks for good stories. Package your story with a bit of masala and hand it over to them. Be persistent, but not clingy. Find journalists online and mail them your storyand pictures of your products. Do follow-ups, especially at lunchtime, which is when you are most likely to get a response. Don’t be disheartened if you don’t get any. Focus on making a better story if rejected. If you don’t go after what you want, you’ll never have it. If you don’t ask, the answer is always no. If you don’t step forward, you’re always in the same place.

8.     Keep “Paai-Paai ka hisaab”. Do your math. Don’t underestimate cost of returns.

Business is accounts. Keep accounts for everything, right from the little things like the tape used to package the product, to the train ticket you bought to make a cold call in person. Recovering your costs is of primary importance. Don’t sell too low with the hope of getting more orders. Getting 20 orders where you earn Rs200 per order is better than getting 50 orders where you earn Rs100 per order. Don’t underestimate the cost of returns. Add 10 per cent of your selling price to your cost price as cost of returns while calculating the total cost of your product. Be frugal. It is very important and difficult to keep track of payments. Even if your sales are good, if you don’t keep track of payments, you’ll lose money. We have worked hard to create a system in our accounts that tracks the payment of each and every order. Don’t be lazy in doing the same. You should know where your money comes from.

  1. Differentiation from the market comes from getting hit. The more setbacks you face, the lesser your competition.

    When you set out to do something unique, you’ll find roadblocks in each and every step. Get hit. Face the problems instead of giving up. We live in a lazy world. We live in a world where everyone wants instantaneous success, name, fame and money. Don’t be that person. I cherish each difficulty.  The more difficulties I face in conquering it translates to the lesser the competition from those who thought about the same idea as me but didn’t execute it. If it was easy, everyone would do it. Competition is killed by sweating yourself on the field, working hard and staying strong where others would have given up. It is really, really difficult to make umbrellas like how I do. Entrepreneurship makes you tired. But there’s a lot of good waiting on the other side. Get yourself tired. That’s where you’ll meet yourself.

  2. “Fortune is like a flirt – she will run away from you when you want her badly, but if you are not interested in her, she will come chasing you.” – Swami Vivekananda

    Majority of people selling on marketplaces get paranoid if they don’t get good sales within a month and think that it is just a waste of time. They do not get sales because they are too bothered about the outcome and do not spend sufficient time on the process. I have always believed that if you let something be, it will come to you slowly. Treat money as a by product. While it is important to see that you’re not losing any, it’s more important to create a value proposition when you start. Don’t get obsessed with money. Don’t worry thinking about why you haven’t got x number of orders in a particular day. Invest the same time in marketing and in differentiating your product. Make the best quality, best designed product available. You don’t have any control over the outcome but you do have control over your actions. Do your actions, let the outcome take care of itself. Don’t chase fortune. Let fortune chase you.


People who judge you do not pay your bills. So shrug them off

 Don’t get affected by people who judge you. Do what you believe in  and brush away all the negativity. When I wasn’t successful, some people used to laugh behind my back, think I’m crazy and humiliate me. Now the same people call me and ask for tips on how to make it big online.

Pray and do good karma

You never know who your next client is. You haven’t seen, shaken hands, negotiated or interacted with him/her. When a notification suddenly pops up on your phone,informing you that someone has placed an order, it’s one of the best feelings ever. You must wait for it. You have no control over it. Meanwhile, do some good karma. I had a faith-strengthening experience in the first half of June. The sales wasn’t picking up. The roads were flooded due to heavy rains due to which I couldn’t make it to the office. I was very stressed out and hadn’t slept well for days. I just got out of my house, without an umbrella, like a seven year old, wanting to dance in the rain. I looked above, thanked the heavens for the wonderful rains and for giving me the opportunity to live my dreams.

When I had got out of the house, at 2 pm, I had 20 unfulfilled orders. When I came back at 4 pm, I had 245 unfulfilled orders. This is the magic of e-commerce.

The 12 most popular digital products you can sell online

The 12 most popular digital products you can sell online

As the team behind an eCommerce plugin, we constantly see the different types of products people are selling online. Most commonly, online stores sell digital products or physical products.

Selling physical products, whether handmade by the designer, or created by someone else and onsold, is highly changeable, and extremely time-consuming. There are the added complexities of shipping, international customers, taxes, laws, importing, inventory management, and so on.

Digital products, however, are in a league of their own.

In comparison, digital products are easy to distribute, significantly more sustainable, can be replicated infinitely, and are oftentimes simpler to create. With little more than one or a few devices, any person is capable of making a digital product worthy of sharing or selling. No physical materials, factories, or staff required. Just a computer, a sprinkle of passion and drive, and some time.

So, you may now be wondering “But what types of digital products can I create?” Well, we counter your question with a question in return: “What kind of products do you want to create?”

If you have something to share, you can turn it into a digital product to sell. You can share your knowledge, talents, opinions, or passion, and potentially make some money along the way.

In this post we’ve gathered a short list of digital products you can sell online. Get ready for some digital product inspiration, so you too can start creating and sharing with the world!

1. eBooks

eBooks have been and continue to be one of the most popular digital products for both creators and customers. They are relatively simple to produce since they require little more than written text and a few relevant images. eBooks are simple to distribute via large marketplaces or self-created online stores. They’re easily consumed by customers, who can read them on e-readers, tablets, computers, and even their mobile phones.

The beauty of creating eBooks is that you can share almost anything you know, or are passionate about, in text form. You can educate, advise, or curate existing content with an eBook to then sell on your website.

Interested in selling eBooks? We wrote an entire post on the topic here.

2. Software

Selling software online is something we should know a fair amount about. Not only have we helped thousands of customers sell software online, but it was originally the entire purpose that we created Easy Digital Downloads for; to sell WordPress plugins online. All types of software sales combined make up nearly 28% of sites using our platform, so it is something we truly care about.

The software industry is enormous and consistently growing. It is also extremely ripe with opportunities. Any person’s ability to write code of any kind can result in new, useful products. Whether it be desktop software, web-based applications, website templates, mobile apps, video games, or anything else powered by code. The possibilities are endless, and an established market likely exists.

If you speak (or rather, write) a code language, you can develop numerous things to sell online. Whether you have experience with apps, plugins, themes, snippets, websites, or something else entirely different, you can turn code into cash.

Want to know more about selling software online? A more detailed post is over here.

3. Video

Video is an extremely popular and effective format for delivering information online. Video content can be educational, informative, or entertaining. It’s significantly more engaging than text, and can be easily consumed by clicking a play button and watching. Users love video, and in many cases are happy to pay for it.

If you’re a great public speaker, have a visual-based passion, or just love sharing your thoughts on video, with a little editing time up your sleeve you can sell videos online.

4. Audio & music

Audio is a powerful medium for communicating messages, and there are many different types of audio digital products. People pay for audio tracks that entertain them, soothe them, inform them, inspire them and help them achieve business goals, to list just a few examples. Audio products can include:

  • Recorded lectures
  • Musical samples
  • Audiobooks
  • Foreign language lessons
  • Relaxing background noises
  • Karaoke versions of popular songs
  • Reusable sound effects
  • Full lyrical or instrumental music tracks

Have a passion for music or other audio based products? A far more in depth guide is over here.

5. Photography

High-quality, premium photos are one of the most sought-after digital products today. The biggest consumers of online photographs are bloggers and website owners.

It’s true that stock photography has commoditized the market to the point where some photos are sold for less than they are worth (or they are given away for free). However, for truly spectacular images (and not some of the cheesy stuff you’ll find on stock websites), photographers can still command fair prices.

One of the biggest downfalls of stock sites from a customer perspective is not knowing exactly how much one or two images are. In some cases, a membership to the stock photo site is required. If you’re a photographer, you can combat stock photo sites by selling your images on your own website for the price you want (and undoubtedly deserve).

A website is a vital part of a photographer’s portfolio. Showcasing your work beautifully is imperative to raising your profile. With competitive pricing, and excellent quality images, it’s possible to do very well selling your independent or client-commissioned photos on your own website.

If you’d like to dig even deeper on the topic of online photography selling, check out this other post.

6. Graphics & digital art

Graphic designers and digital artists can create a wide variety of unique and valuable products. From logos, to .PSD templates, to icon packs, to PowerPoint themes, to original artworks, designers can apply their skills in numerous ways to create digital products for sale.

Graphic designers can create and sell card designs, patterns, brushes, backgrounds, UI assets and more. Digital artists can sell finished pieces, drawings, and sketches. Finished original art of exceptional quality can be priced higher than graphic design pieces. If you can produce artwork digitally, it’s worth selling online (just be sure to license it correctly!).

If you think two paragraphs is not enough on the topic of selling graphics, you’re in luck because we wrote more about it here.

7. Documents

Documents come most often in the form of informational pieces (like industry reports, manuals, or guides) or templates (like resumés or proposals). There are documents which are password protected, documents which include large files, documents with variations on the same files (like other languages or color schemes), documents which can be well suited for recurring models (like periodically revised or updated reports), and documents shared freely as lead magnets.

Have you written blog posts on your website specific to your industry or profession? If so, consider the value of packaging up your content and selling it as a manuscript or white paper so others can learn from you. You’ve already shared your knowledge on your website – curating it into a useful document for sale will be beneficial for both you and your site visitors.

8. Courses

e-Learning is an industry rich in innovation, and is growing with unprecedented momentum. As it grows, we are starting to see traditional educational institutions explore new ways to make their content available to learners. As for established educational programmes, learning material can be sold in a few different ways:

  • As a downloadable one-off course
  • As a downloadable collection of courses
  • As a memberships/subscription to a web-based service.

Courses are very often sold the same way as other digital products, and with the same tools, which is why we’ve become very familiar with online course sellers.

According to our recent user surveys, the number of people using Easy Digital Downloads to sell courses has quadrupled in one year. This is the most drastic increase for a specific product type we’ve seen since we started monitoring this data through our surveys.

Some courses are entirely autonomous, while others offer interaction with a teacher or assignment reviewer. Many courses provide students with some form of certification or reward upon successful completion.

Courses are becoming an increasingly popular foundation or complementary component for online businesses, due to consumer trends, and the prevalence of affordable and easy-to-use Learning Management Systems. They offer a lucrative outlet for anyone with knowledge or expertise, and enable educators to reach a broad audience without being constrained by geography, technology or time.

9. Professional services

Services are, of course, not products at all. However, they are very commonly sold in the same way digital products are. They are often sold one of two ways:

  1. As fixed-price services. The cost of the service is predefined and known to the customer before needing to engage with the service provider.
  2. On a case-by-case basis. The required work is scoped by the service provider, quoted to the customer, and the cost is agreed upon by both parties.

In the world of eCommerce, the line between product and service has become a little fuzzy, and in many cases, the customer doesn’t care very much about the difference. Customers can buy pre-made logos as a product with a defined price. They can also pay a predefined price on some sites to have someone design a logo which results in a very similar experience and end result.

With many service-based jobs, you are selling your time in exchange for a specific outcome or result, instead of a product. Or, you may be selling your time for a completely bespoke product, unique only to that one customer.

These days, all kinds of service providers are opting to sell their services online. Below is a very brief list of some of the professions that can sell services online:

  • Graphic designers
  • Web designers
  • Copywriters
  • Translators
  • Consultants
  • Trainers
  • Coaches
  • Legal professionals

And that’s barely scratching the surface! This is another segment of digital products we have seen on the rise, with more than three times as many people selling services using Easy Digital Downloads now compared with a year ago.

For an excellent, detailed read about selling services online, head over to another post we wrote on the topic.

10. Tickets

Though definitely quite different from other digital products due to the fact that they are (usually) applicable only for a certain time period, relate (often) to some physical location, and (normally) have limited availability, tickets are very commonly sold in the same way everything else in this post is. Customers can make their selections, checkout and receive their ticket independently and instantly through a seller’s website. These tickets can get them into conferences, concerts, carnivals and other time-based events or can be for admission to amusement parks, zoos and museums which may not enforce a specific time. Tickets can also be sold for purely online experiences such as webinars, classes, online conferences, or in-person conference live stream feeds.

11. Fonts

Typefaces are a great example of a digital product which is always popular and constantly experiencing change as customer preferences gradually shift over time. Fonts can be created and distributed for use on the web by website creators, or for use in desktop applications like Microsoft Word and Adobe Photoshop. Enthusiasts appreciate fresh new fonts which means continuing to expand one’s commercial catalog over time may be necessary in order to maintain revenue.

12. Web-based applications

Web-based applications are similar to software, but are not downloaded from the web. Instead this category encompasses anything customers pay to use within a web browser. Also called SaaS (Software as a Service) businesses, they are not digital products in the truest sense, but can be sold and perceived very similarly, so they are important to acknowledge.

Many software creators find themselves faced with the choice between building a web-based SaaS app, and a distributed, installable program. Examples of these applications include services for email marketing (like Drip, MailChimp, AWeber, and Constant Contact), contact management (like Salesforce, Nutshell, and Pipedrive), site monitoring (like Pingdom and Status Cake), project management (like Basecamp, Asana, Podio and Jira), online course-based learning memberships (like Team Treehouse, Lynda, Skillshare, and Coursera) and file storage (like Dropbox, iCloud, Google Drive, and MediaFire). Since customers are paying for access to tools/services, recurring payment models are standard.

So, what will you start selling?

We are constantly observing changes in the popularity of certain types of digital products for sale, as well as technological advances to make selling digital products easier. Courses, services and web apps are all on the rise. WordPress plugins, video and graphics are still very strong. Clip art and Flash-based games appear to have seen their day. We’re extremely interested to see how things will change over the next few years!

Did we miss any products in our list? We’ve looked at what people were selling in 2017, and in previous years. Is there something you believe we’ll see more of in 2018 and beyond? Are you already selling digital products on your site? Or are you interested in getting started? Join the conversation in the comments below!

And remember to sign up to our mailing list to keep an eye out for future blog posts that will dig deeper into the digital products mentioned above. Let us know if there is something you’d like to see us cover in more detail!

20 Most Demanded & Hot Selling Products in India Online

20 Most Demanded & Hot Selling Products in India Online

Online shopping is a growing trend in India and the numbers of both sellers and buyers are increasing daily by whopping percentages. According to a reliable source, India’s total online sales figure is estimated to reach the US $100 billion by 2020, and apparels would be the largest segment. Clothing even now is a major product of online sales. Other items that are in high demand of online buyers are mobile phones, consumer electronics, footwear, food and health supplements, beauty products, kitchen and home furnishings, fashion accessories, jewellery, books, toys and video games, handmade goods, and online subscriptions.

Products that are most in demand and selling online in India are:

Apparels – Dresses constitute the largest segment of all products sold online in India. Close to 35% of entire revenue generated from online sales comes from apparels and dress materials. Apparels include ladies clothes, men’s clothing, and children’s dresses.

Mobile Phones – Mobile phones are very popular items for sale on eCommerce sites. All brands and models available in the open market are also sold through online sites. For buyers, it is easy to compare among models online before buying a handset of choice.

Books – Buying a book could be really time-consuming if bought from the open market. It is easy for a buyer to locate a seller of their selected titles across eCommerce sites. Educational, fictional, and reference books from Indian as well as overseas publishers are available across eCommerce sites.

Consumer Electronics – eCommerce sites are excellent platforms for buying/selling consumer electronic goods like laptops, tablets, and digital cameras. By 2025 India is expected to become world’s 5th largest consumer durable market.

Footwear – Online is perhaps the best place to search for and buy footwear. The varieties are exhaustive and include shoes, slippers, sandals, and snickers for both ladies and gentlemen. People get to choose among leading brands from across the world.

Jewellery – Buying exclusive jewellery items is often a tough task when bought across counters. The entire process of selecting preferred items and buying from global leaders is done conveniently through eCommerce websites.

Fashion Accessories – It is obvious that after jewellery items, fashion accessories is a popular product category sold online. Belts, hand bags, purses, wallets, head bands, and watches are some of the items bought widely online by Indians.

Beauty Products – Skin care products like cream, lotion, face masks, moisturisers, and perfumes are demanded items that are sold online. Hair care products like gel, cream, colour, shampoo, dryers etc. are widely hot selling products through eCommerce sites.

Computer Hardware, Software, and Accessories – Desktops, disk drives, storage devices, printers, scanners, mouse, and switches are some of the computing devices and accessories that people buy online in India. Market’s leading brands are available to customers at hugely discounted prices.

Video Games – eCommerce sites in India are used to buy video games especially as gifts to children. Games ranging from FIFA World Cup, Grand Theft Auto, Call of Duty, and so on are all available on online sites.

Toys and Games – Online sites are a paradise for kids’ toys. Be it traditional games like snakes-n-ladders, scrabble or current generation remotely operated cars and helicopters, eStores offer every toy of your choice.

Home Decor Items – Drapes, cushion covers, furnishings, flower vases, table mats, tea coasters, rugs, carpets, wall-hangings and so on are available in online stores.

Kitchenware – Online marketplaces are widely used for buying kitchenware like utensils, crockery, cutlery, storage jars, and so on.

Household Appliances – This category of goods including burners, microwave ovens, pressure cookers, washing machines, electric irons, electric kettle, rice cookers, induction plates, etc are popularly sold online.

Sports Goods and Fitness Equipment – Recently these commodities have a lot of online buyers. Cricket bats, tennis and badminton rackets, football and basketballs, carom boards, football boots, cricket gear, hockey sticks, and so on are readily available online.

Baby Care Products – Baby care items is a huge revenue generator when it comes to online sales. Products like soap, powder, cream, oil, linen and diapers are sold extensively on online retail sites. Items like feeding bottles, teether, soothers, and pacifiers are also widely sold.

Food and Health Supplements – A recent addition to online supplies are food and health supplements. Changing life pattern has prompted many Indians to opt for food and health supplements triggering an increased demand for such items. eCommerce sites are the best option for buying such products.

Provisions – Items of daily use like rice, pulses, salt, sugar, cooking oil, spices, and toiletries are now sold online at a lesser price compared to market rates. For people with little time for visiting market regularly, such an online option is splendid.

Handmade Items – Handcrafted items such as costume jewellery, artefacts, scarves, footwear, table mats, purses etc. are gradually gaining popularity as items for online sale in India.

Subscriptions – Subscriptions to digital media like music channels, sports channels, films, and entertainment channels is a new kind of online service being offered to buyers.

eCommerce business in India is thriving and newer items are getting added to the list of commodities every day.

best website editor for windows

10 Best Free HTML Web Editors for Windows

An HTML editor is a special kind of software that helps in creating and editing of HTML code, which is the markup of a webpage. They work the same as other text editors by allowing users to enter raw text. Since they can be used to boost productivity in web development, many web developers use them to create and also maintain their websites. There are different types of HTML editors out there today.

Here are the best free HTML editors for windows that you can use in your web development:

1. NetBeans

This is a Java IDE that is excellent in the creation of great web applications. Since it is an IDE, its learning curve is steep. This is because it does not always work the same way as other web editors. You only need to get used to it and you will love working with it in the creation of the most robust web applications. It has a version control feature, which is great to use if you are working in large web development platforms.

2. Notepad++

This is one of the best free HTML web editors you will find out there for Windows. It is basically a stronger version of Notepad program, which is available in Windows by default. It is therefore only meant for Windows. With it, you get line numbers, hints, color coding and all the other helpful tools that you will need, which the standard software does not have. All these additions are what makes Notepad++ a great choice for front end developers and web designers as well.

3. Microsoft Visual Studio Community

Microsoft Visual Studio Community
This is also an IDE that can help programmers and developers start on a great footing in the creation of internet applications for the web, desktop as well as mobile devices. You get a free download with this software. There is also a paid version, which comes with a number of free trials, which can be used for professional as well as enterprise development.

4. Komodo Edit

Komodo Edit
This is an open source software that comes absolutely free for web developers. It is great because it comes with so many great features that you can use for HTML as well as CSS development. You also get extensions that can help you add language support and other great features plus special characters to your projects. It may not be the best available HTML web editor but it does extremely well whenever it is used.

5. BlueGriffon

This is a great web editor to use as it shows how your work will be rendered in all the standard browsers. The software is available not just for Windows but for Macintosh and Linux as well, and it comes in a variety of languages to suit different developers. It is in fact a WYSIWYG editor, therefore a great choice particularly for beginners and small business owners, who are interested in a more visual way of working.

6. Eclipse

This is a great platform to choose if you are the kind of developer who does a lot of coding in different languages and on different platforms. It is quite complex and structured as plugins, such that you only need to look for the right plugin when you want to edit something. It has some of the best features, which can be quite helpful if you are working on complex web applications. It can help you develop all your applications quite easily. Some of the plugins you get with this software are Java, PHP and JavaScript plus plugins for mobile developers.

7. BlueFish

This is a great HTML web editor, which is full of great features, which are capable of running on a number of platforms, which includes Windows, MacOS-X, Linux among other great platforms. There is the latest version, which has more capabilities and has fixed the flaws of the previous version, to make it even better for developers. The software comes with some of the best to note features for instance auto complete of many languages, project management, code-sensitive spell check, Snippets and autosave. Since it is not just a web editor, it is flexible enough and therefore can also be used by developers who write in more than just HTML.

8. CoffeeCup Free HTML Editor

CoffeeCup Free HTML Editor
This one is available as a free version as well as a full version, available for purchase. The free version is a great choice too, though it does not come with full features, which can limit you on how much you can do during web development. There is also an upgraded version, which offers support for responsive web design, Responsive Magic. The free version is great on its own though. It is the best choice for beginners in web design and development and also for small business owners.

9. Emacs Profile

Emacs Profile
This is a software that is found on most of Linux systems. Its main advantage is that it can allow the user to edit a page even without installing the standard software. It is however a little complicated when compared to other editors, but it offers more features that can help a developer a lot in creating any types of web applications.

10. Aptana Studio

Aptana Studio
This is a great choice of web editor if you want to create rich web applications all the time. It does not really focus on HTML but on JavaScript and other elements necessary for successful web development. It is however not the best for anyone that is interested in a simple web editor because it is rich, with great tools to help you handle any web development need that you may come across. The main problem though is that the software does not show any updates since its release.

You need to ensure that you make the right choice when it comes to web editors for Windows because this is what will help you boost your productivity in web development. You also want to choose an editor that will help you build as well as maintain your web applications.

About Atal Bihari Vajpayee

About Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Atal Bihari Vajpayee BR (pronunciation [əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpai]; 25 December 1924[1] – 16 August 2018)[2] was an Indian politician who thrice served as the Prime Minister of India, first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of eleven months from 1998 to 1999, and finally, for a full term from 1999 to 2004.

He was a member of the Indian Parliament for over four decades, having been elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, ten times, and twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament for Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh until 2009 when he retired from active politics due to health concerns. Vajpayee was among the founding members of the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh which he also headed from 1968 to 1972. He was the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai.

When the Janata government collapsed, Vajpayee restructured the Jana Sangh into the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1980. He was the first Indian prime minister who was not a member of the Indian National Congress party to have served a full five-year term in office.

He was conferred India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of IndiaPranab Mukherjee in 2015.[3] The Modi government declared in 2014 that Vajpayee’s birthday, 25 December, would be marked as Good Governance Day.[4][5] He died on 16 August 2018 due to age related illness.[6]

Early life and education

Vajpayee was born to Krishna Devi and Krishna Bihari Vajpayee on 25 December 1924 in Gwalior.[7] His grandfather, Pandit Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to Morena, Gwalior from his ancestral village of Bateshwar, Uttar Pradesh.[7] His father, Krishna Bihari Vajpayee, was a school teacher in his hometown.[8] Vajpayee did his schooling from the Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Gwalior. He subsequently attended Gwalior’s Victoria College (now Laxmi Bai College) and graduated with distinction in Hindi, English and Sanskrit. He completed his post-graduation with an M.A. in Political Science from DAV College, Kanpur, and was awarded a first-class degree.[1][9]

His activism started with Arya Kumar Sabha of Gwalior, the youth wing of the Arya Samaj, of which he became the general secretary in 1944. He also joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) as a swayamsevak, or volunteer, in 1939. Influenced by Babasaheb Apte, he attended the Officers Training Camp of the RSS during 1940–44 and became a pracharak, RSS terminology for a a full-time worker, in 1947. He gave up studying law due to the partition riots. He was sent as a vistarak, a probationary pracharak, to Uttar Pradesh and quickly began working for the newspapers of Deendayal UpadhyayaRashtradharma (a Hindi monthly), Panchjanya (a Hindi weekly) and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun.[9][10][11]

Early political career (1942–1975)

By 1942, Vajpayee, though only 16 years old at the time, had already become an active member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. In August 1942, he and his elder brother Prem were arrested for 24 days during the Quit India Movement. He was released after giving a written undertaking stating that while he was a part of the crowd, he did not participate in the militant events in Bateshwar on 27 August 1942.[12]

In 1948, the RSS was banned for its alleged role in the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.[13] In 1951, he was seconded by the RSS, along with Deendayal Upadhyaya, to work for the newly formed Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a Hindu right-wing political party associated with the RSS. He was appointed as a national secretary of the party in charge of the Northern region, based in Delhi. He soon became a follower and aide of party leader Syama Prasad Mukherjee. In 1954, Vajpayee was with Mukherjee when he went on a fast-unto-death in Kashmir to protest against the perceived inferior treatment of non-Kashmiri Indian visitors to the state. Mookerjee died in prison during this strike. In 1957, Vajpayee lost to Raja Mahendra Pratap in Mathura[14][15] for the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament of India, but was elected from Balrampur. There, his oratorial skills so impressed Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that he predicted that Vajpayee would someday become the Prime Minister of India.[16]

Vajpayee’s oratorial skills won him the reputation of being the most eloquent defender of the Jana Sangh’s policies.[17] After the death of Deendayal Upadhyaya, the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee.[18] He became the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968,[19] running the party along with Nanaji DeshmukhBalraj Madhok and L. K. Advani.[18]

Political career (1975–1995)

In 1975, Vajpayee was arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the Internal Emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress party.[8][20]

A coalition of parties, called the Janata Party, won the 1977 general electionsMorarji Desai, the chosen leader of the alliance, became the prime minister. Vajpayee served as the Minister of External Affairs, or foreign minister, in Desai’s cabinet.[21] As foreign minister, Vajpayee became the first person in 1977 to deliver a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Hindi.[21]

The Janata Party was dissolved soon after Morarji Desai resigned as Prime Minister in 1979.[22] The Jana Sangh had devoted its political organisation to sustain the coalition and was left exhausted by the internecine political wars within the Janata Party.[23][dead link] Erstwhile members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh came together to form the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first President.[24] The BJP evolved into the primary opposition group in Indian politics, and Vajpayee an important political figure.[25]

The 1984 general elections were held in the wake of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. While he had won the 1977 and the 1980 elections from New Delhi, Vajpayee shifted to his home town Gwalior for the election.[26] Vidya Razdan was initially tipped to be the Congress (I) candidate. Instead, Madhavrao Scindia, scion of the Gwalior royal family, was brought in on the last day of filing nominations.[27] Vajpayee lost to Sciendia, managing to secure only 29% of the votes.[26] Gandhi’s assassination generated sympathy for the Congress, leading to a massive victory at the polls. BJP could only win two seats in parliament.[28] [29] Vajpayee offered to quit as party president following BJP’s dismal performance in the election,[30] but stayed in the post until 1986.[31][32][33] He was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1986 from Madhya Pradesh,[34] and was the leader of the BJP in parliament.[35] In 1986, LK Advani, took charge as the party president.[28]

Beginning in 1990, the BJP became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir Movement which sought to build a temple dedicated to the Hindu god Rama in Ayodhya. The temple would be built at the site believed to be the birthplace of Rama by demolishing a 16th century mosque, called the Babri Masjid, which then stood there.[36] In December 1992, a group of religious volunteers led by members of the BJP, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), tore down the mosque.[37] BJP’s role in the movement led to major political gains.[17]

Victory in the assembly elections in Gujarat and Maharashtra in March 1995, and a good performance in the elections to the Karnataka assembly in December 1994, propelled the BJP to greater political prominence. During a BJP conference in Mumbai in November 1995, BJP President L. K. Advani declared that Vajpayee would become the Prime Minister of India. The BJP won in the May 1996 parliamentary elections.[38]

Prime Ministership

Vajpayee served as the Prime Minister of India between 1996 and 2004 in three non-consecutive terms.

First term: May 1996

The BJP grew in strength in the early 1995, riding on nationalist sentiment in the country. In the 1996 general elections, the BJP emerged as the single largest party in the Lok Sabha.[39] The then president Shankar Dayal Sharma invited Vajpayee to form the government.[40] Vajpayee was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of India,[41] but the BJP failed to muster enough support from other parties to obtain a majority. He resigned after 13 days when it became clear that he could not garner a majority.[41][42]

Second term: 1998–1999

After the fall of the two United Front governments between 1996 and 1998, the Lok Sabha was dissolved and fresh elections were held. The 1998 general elections again put the BJP ahead of others. This time, a cohesive bloc of political parties joined the BJP to form the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and Vajpayee was sworn in as the Prime Minister.[43]

The NDA proved its majority in the parliament. The government lasted 13 months until mid-1999 when the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) under Jayalalithaawithdrew its support to the government.[44] The government lost the ensuing vote of confidence motion in the Lok Sabha by a single vote on 17 April 1999.[45] As the Opposition was unable to come up with the numbers to form the new government, the Lok Sabha was again dissolved and fresh elections were held.[46] Vajpayee remained the Prime Minister until the elections were held.

Nuclear tests

In May 1998, India conducted five underground nuclear tests in Pokhran desert in Rajasthan, 24 yrs after India conducted its first nuclear test (Smiling Buddha) in 1974. This test is called Pokhran-II. The tests were held just a month after the government had been in power. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear tests making it the newest nation with declared nuclear capability.

While some nations, such as Russia and France, endorsed India’s right to defensive nuclear power,[48] others including the United States, Canada, Japan, Britain and the European Union imposed sanctions on information, resources and technology to India. In spite of intense international criticism and steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically. In effect, the international sanctions imposed failed to sway India from weaponising its nuclear capability. US sanctions against India and Pakistan were eventually lifted after just six months, a development that the Vajpayee administration had anticipated and planned for.[49]

The Lahore summit

In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant Lahore Declarationespoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and mutual friendship and envisaged a goal of denuclearised South Asia. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations but also in South Asia and the rest of the world.[50][51]

The Vajpayee-led government was faced with two crises in mid-1999. The AIADMK had continually threatened to withdraw from the coalition and national leaders repeatedly flew down from Delhi to Chennai to pacify the AIADMK chief J. Jayalalitha. However, in May 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA, and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending fresh elections scheduled for October 1999.[52]

Kargil War

It was revealed that militants and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers (many with official identifications and Pakistan Army‘s custom weaponry) had infiltrated into the Kashmir Valley and captured control of border hilltops, unmanned border posts and were spreading out fast. The incursion was centred around the town of Kargil, but also included the Batalik and Akhnoor sectors and artillery exchanges at the Siachen Glacier.[53][54]

Indian army units were swiftly rushed into Kashmir in response.[55] Operation Vijay, launched in June 1999, saw the Indian military fighting thousands of militants and soldiers in the midst of heavy artillery shelling and while facing extremely cold weather, snow and treacherous terrain at the high altitude.[55] Over 500 Indian soldiers were killed in the three-month-long Kargil War, and it is estimated around 600-4,000 Pakistani militants and soldiers died as well.[56][57][58][59] India pushed back the Pakistani militants and Northern Light Infantrysoldiers. Almost 70% of the territory was recaptured by India.[55] Vajpayee sent a “secret letter” to US President Bill Clinton that if Pakistani infiltrators did not withdraw from the Indian territory, “we will get them out, one way or the other” – meaning he did not rule out crossing the Line of Control (LoC), or was the use of nuclear weapons.[60]

After Pakistan suffered heavy losses, and with both the United States and China refusing to condone the incursion or threaten India to stop its military operations, General Musharrafwas recalcitrant and Nawaz Sharif asked the remaining militants to stop and withdraw to positions along the LoC.[61] The militants were not willing to accept orders from Sharif but the NLI soldiers withdrew.[62] The militants were killed by the army or forced to withdraw in skirmishes which went beyond the announcement of withdrawal by Pakistan.[63]

Third term: 1999–2004

In the 1999 general elections, the BJP-led NDA won 303 seats out of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha, in the aftermath of the Kargil operations,[64] thereby securing a comfortable and stable majority. On 13 October 1999, Atal Bihari Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time.[65]

Indian Airlines hijack

A national crisis emerged in December 1999, when Indian Airlines flight IC 814 from Kathmandu to New Delhi was hijacked by five terrorists and flown to Taliban-ruled Afghanistan.[66] The hijackers made several demands including the release of certain terrorists like Masood Azhar from prison. Under extreme pressure, the government ultimately caved in. Jaswant Singh, the Minister of External Affairs at the time, flew with the terrorists to Afghanistan and exchanged them for the passengers.[67]

A.B.Vajpayee meeting President Bush in the White House in 2001

National highway project, foreign policy and economic reforms

During his administration, Vajpayee introduced many domestic economic and infrastructural reforms, including encouraging the private sector and foreign investments, reducing governmental waste, encouraging research and development and privatisation of some government owned corporations.[68] The UPA Government on 1 July 2013 accepted before Supreme Court that National Democratic Alliance Government led by Vajpayee has developed half the roads in last 32 years in their 5-year term.[69]

Among Vajpayee’s projects were the National Highways Development Project and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana.[70][71]

In March 2000, Bill Clinton, the President of the United States, paid a state visit to India.[72] This was the first state visit to India by a US President in 22 years since President Jimmy Carter’s visit in 1978.[73] President Clinton’s visit was hailed as a significant milestone in the relations between the two countries.[72] Vajpayee and Clinton had wide-ranging discussion on bilateral, regional and international developments.[74] The visit led to expansion in trade and economic ties between India and the US.[75] The Historic Vision Document on the future course of Indo-US relations was signed during the visit.[76]

Domestically, the BJP-led government was under constant pressure from its ideological mentor, the RSS, and the hard-line VHP to enact the Hindutva agenda. But owing to its dependence on coalition support, it was impossible for the BJP to push items like building the Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya, repealing Article 370 which gave a special status to the state of Kashmir, or enacting a uniform civil code applicable to adherents of all religions. On 17 January 2000, there were reports of the RSS and some BJP hard-liners threatening to restart the Jan Sangh, the precursor to the BJP, because of their discontent over Atal Bihari Vajpayee rule. Former president of the Jan Sangh, Balraj Madhok, had written a letter to the then RSS chief, Rajendra Singh for support.[77] The BJP was, however, accused of saffronising (saffron being the colour of the flag of the RSS, symbol of the Hindu nationalism movement) the official state education curriculum and apparatus. Also, Home Minister L.K. Advani and Human Resource Development Minister Murli Manohar Joshi were indicted in the 1992 Babri Mosque demolition case for inciting a mob of activists. Vajpayee himself came under public scrutiny owing to his controversial speech one day prior to the mosque demolition.[78]

Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russia’s president Vladimir Putin

These couple of years of reform however were accompanied by infighting in the administration and confusion regarding the direction of government.[citation needed] Vajpayee’s weakening health was also a subject of public interest, and he underwent a major knee-replacement surgery at the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai to relieve great pressure on his legs.[79]

In March 2001, the Tehelka group released the sting operation video named Operation West End showing videos of the BJP PresidentBangaru Laxman, senior army officers and NDA members accepting bribes from journalists posing as agents and businessmen.[80][81]The Defence Minister George Fernandes was forced to resign following the Barak Missile scandal, another scandal involving the botched supplies of coffins for the soldiers killed in Kargil, and the findings of an inquiry commission that the Government could have prevented the Kargil invasion.[82]

Vajpayee again broke the ice in the Indo-Pak relations by inviting Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf to Delhi and Agra for a joint summit and peace talks which became known as the Agra summit. His second major attempt to move beyond the stalemate involved inviting the man who had planned the Kargil invasions. But accepting him as the President of Pakistan, Vajpayee chose to move forward. But after three days of much fanfare, which included Musharraf visiting his birthplace in Delhi, the summit failed to achieve a breakthrough as President Musharraf declined to leave aside the issue of Kashmir.[83]

In 2001, the Vajpayee government launched the famous Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, which aimed at improving the quality of education in primary and secondary schools.[84][85]

2001 attack on Parliament

On 13 December 2001, a group of masked, armed men with fake IDs stormed the Parliament House in Delhi.[86] The terrorists managed to kill several security guards, but the building was sealed off swiftly and security forces cornered and killed the men, who were later proven to be Pakistan nationals.[87] Prime Minister Vajpayee ordered a mobilisation of India’s military forces, and as many as 500,000 servicemen amassed along the international boundary bordering Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kashmir.[citation needed] Pakistan responded with the same. Vicious terrorist attacks and an aggressive anti-terrorist campaign froze day-to-day life in Kashmir, and foreigners flocked out of both India and Pakistan, fearing a possible war and nuclear exchange.[citation needed] For as long as two years, both nations remained perilously close to a terrible war.[88]

The Vajpayee administration also passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act against vigorous opposition of non-NDA parties. Human rights groups have condemned the act which gives wide authority to the government to crack down and hold anybody. Its repeal was advocated by human rights organisations.[89]

But the biggest political disaster hit his government between December 2001 and March 2002: the VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in Ayodhya over the Ram temple. At the 10th anniversary of the destruction of the Babri mosque, the VHP wanted to perform a shila daan, or a ceremony laying the foundation stone of the cherished temple at the disputed site. Tens of thousands of VHP activists amassed and threatened to overrun the site and forcibly build the temple. A grave threat of not only communal violence, but an outright breakdown of law and order owing to the defiance of the government by a religious organisation hung over the nation. But to the relief of Vajpayee, his government was able to tide over this crisis rather smoothly.[citation needed]

2002 Gujarat violence

In 2002, Hindu-Muslim violence in the state Gujarat killed more than 1,000 people. Vajpayee officially condemned the violence.[90]

Later, Vajpayee made controversial remarks: “Wherever there are Muslims in large numbers, they do not want to live in peace.”[91] The Prime Minister’s Office stated that these remarks had been taken out of context.[92]

Vajpayee was accused of doing nothing to stop the violence, and later admitted mistakes in handling the events.[93] K. R. Narayanan, then president of India, also blamed Vajpayee’s government for failing to quell the violence.[94]


In late 2002 and 2003 the government pushed through economic reforms, and the country’s GDP growth accelerated at record levels, exceeding 6–7%. Increasing foreign investment, modernisation of public and industrial infrastructure, the creation of jobs, a rising high-tech and IT industry and urban modernisation and expansion improved the nation’s international image. Good crop harvests and strong industrial expansion also helped the economy.[citation needed]

The government reformed the tax system, increased the pace of reforms and pro-business initiatives, major irrigation and housing schemes and so on. The political energies of the BJP shifted to the rising urban middle-class and young people, who were positive and enthusiastic about the major economic expansion and future of the country. He faced stiff opposition from other equally strong organisations in the Sangh Parivar such as the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh and the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh. However, he continued with his aggressive economic reform policy.[citation needed]

In August 2003, he announced before the parliament his “absolute last” effort to achieve peace with Pakistan. Although the diplomatic process never truly set-off immediately, visits were exchanged by high-level officials and the military stand-off ended. The Pakistani President and Pakistani politicians, civil and religious leaders hailed this initiative as did the leaders of America, Europe and much of the world. In July 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee, visited China, and met with various Chinese leaders. He recognised Tibet as a part of China, which was welcomed by the Chinese leadership, who in the following year, recognised Sikkim, as a part of India.[95] China–India relations improved greatly in the following years.[96][97]

Advani assumed greater responsibilities in the party, and although no perceivable conflict has been known to arise between the longtime friends and political colleagues, several embarrassing statements were made. Once Vajpayee said “Advani would lead the BJP in the elections,” prompting Advani to clarify that he would merely lead the election campaign, not the party. And then the BJP President Venkaiah Naidu used mythological references to depict Vajpayee as Vikas Purush (Man of Progress) and Advani as Loh Purush (Iron Man).[98]

2004 general election

The NDA was widely expected to retain power after the 2004 general election. The 13th Lok Sabha had been dissolved before the completion of its term to capitalise on the perceived ‘feel-good factor’ and BJP’s recent successes in the Assembly elections in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The BJP hoped to capitalise on the slogan “India Shining” and released many ads touting the economic growth of the nation.[99][100]

However, the coalition lost almost half of its seats, with several prominent cabinet ministers being defeated. The Indian National Congress, led by Sonia Gandhi, became the single largest party and, along with many minor parties, formed the United Progressive Alliance. With the conditional support of the leftist parties from the outside, the UPA formed a government under Manmohan Singh. Vajpayee resigned as Prime Minister.[101] He decided not to take up the position of the Leader of the Opposition and passed on the leadership mantle to L. K. Advani.


In December 2005, Vajpayee announced his retirement from active politics, declaring that he would not contest in the next general election. In a famous statement at the BJP’s silver jubilee rally at Mumbai’s Shivaji Park, Vajpayee announced that “Henceforth, Lal Krishna Advani and Pramod Mahajan will be the Ram-Laxman [the two godly brothers much revered and worshipped by Hindus] of the BJP.”[102]

Vajpayee was referred to as the Bhishma Pitamah of Indian politics by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during a speech in the Rajya Sabha, a reference to a mythological figure in the Hindu epic Mahabharata who was held in respect by two warring sides.[103]

Vajpayee was hospitalised at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS) for a chest infection and fever on 6 February 2009. He was put on ventilator support as his condition worsened but he eventually recuperated and was later discharged.[104] Unable to participate in the campaign for the 2009 general election due to his poor health, he wrote a letter urging voters to back the BJP.[105] His protege Lalji Tandon was able to retain the Lucknow seat in that election even though the NDA suffered electoral reverses all over the country. It was speculated that Vajpayee’s non-partisan appeal contributed to Lalji’s success in Lucknow in contrast to that BJP’s poor performance elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh.[88]

Personal life

Vajpayee remained a bachelor his entire life. He adopted and raised as his own child Namita Bhattacharya, the daughter of longtime friend Rajkumari Kaul and BN Kaul.[106]

He was fond of Indian music and dance. He loved nature and one of his favourite retreats was Manali in Himachal Pradesh.[107]

He was a published poet, and with regard to his poetry he wrote, “My poetry is a declaration of war, not an exordium to defeat. It is not the defeated soldier’s drumbeat of despair, but the fighting warrior’s will to win. It is not the despirited voice of dejection but the stirring shout of victory.”[108]

Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s funeral procession moving to Raj Ghat for last rites.


Vajpayee suffered a stroke in 2009 which impaired his speech.[109] His health had been a major source of concern reports said he was confined to a wheelchair and failed to recognise people. He also suffered from dementia and long-term diabetes. For many years, he had not attended any public engagements and rarely ventured out of the house, except for checkups at the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences.[109][110] On 11 June 2018, Vajpayee was admitted to AIIMS in critical condition.[111][112][113] He died there at 5:05 pm IST on 16 August 2018 due to age related illness.[6]



Vajpayee authored several works of both prose and poetry. Some of his major publications are listed below. In addition to these, various collections were made of his speeches, articles, and slogans.[114][115][114][116]


  • National Integration (1961)[117]
  • New Dimensions of India’s Foreign Policy (1979)[114]
  • Gathbandhan Ki Rajneeti[118]
  • Kucha Lekha, Kucha Bhashana (1996)[119]
  • Bindu-Bindu Vicara (1997)[120]
  • Decisive Days (1999)[121]
  • Sankalp-Kaal (1999)[122]
  • Vicara-Bindu (Hindi Edition, 2000)[114]
  • India’s Perspectives on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific Region (2003)[123]
  • Na Dainyam Na Palayanam[124]
  • Nayi Chunouti : Naya Avasar[125]


  • Kaidi Kaviraj Ki Kundalian[114]
  • Amar Aag Hai (1994)[114]
  • Meri Ikyavana Kavitaem (1995)[126]. Some of these poems were set to music by Jagjit Singh for his album Samvedna.[127]
  • Kya Khoya Kya Paya: Atal Bihari Vajapeyi, Vyaktitva Aur Kavitaem (1999)[128]
  • Values, Vision & Verses of Vajpayee: India’s Man of Destiny (2001)[129]
  • Twenty-One Poems (2003)[130]
  • Chuni Hui Kavitayein (2012)[131]

An English translation of a selection of some of Vajpayee’s Hindi poetry was published in 2013.[132]

Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes, SMS, Photos, Messages, Status, Wallpaper, Pics, Greetings

Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes, SMS, Photos, Messages, Status, Wallpaper, Pics, Greetings

Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes, SMS, Photos, Messages, Status: On August 15, 1947, after a long drawn struggle, India finally managed to free itself from the British rule. The day serves as a timely reminder of the struggle for independence and the many lives that were sacrificed in pursuit of it. The words of Pt Jawaharlal Nehru when he said, “At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom,” perfectly capture the struggle and the consequent joy one felt on Independence Day.

On the occasion of 72nd Independence Day, we bring to you a collection of SMSes, WhatsApp and Facebook messages that you can share with your near and dear ones to mark this day.

*On this Independence Day, take a minute or two to thank God for such a precious gift. Happy Independence Day.

* Do not take your independence and freedom for granted. Happy Independence Day.

Independence Day, Indian Independence Day 2018, 72 Independence Day, independence day photos, Independence Day images, Happy Independence Day 2018, Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes: Every year, on Independence day, people from different walks of life come together and celebrate freedom. (Designed by Nidhi Mishra/The Indian Express)

* Independence is among the most valuable gifts one can benefit from. This day God granted this gift to our freedom fighters.

* This country will remain the home of the liberated only, as long as we make it the land of the brave. Happy Independence Day.

Independence Day, Indian Independence Day 2018, 72 Independence Day, independence day photos, Independence Day images, Happy Independence Day 2018, Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes: Independence is one of the most valuable gifts we have.  (Designed by Nidhi Mishra/The Indian Express)

* Freedom is one of the most expensive commodities. No amount of money will be enough to buy freedom.

* May you be blessed with the freedom of mind, thought and spirit! Happy Independence Day!

Independence Day, Indian Independence Day 2018, 72 Independence Day, independence day photos, Independence Day images, Happy Independence Day 2018, Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes: On this day, it is imperative to remember those who made this Independence a reality. (Designed by Nidhi Mishra/The Indian Express)

* Let your heart bask in free spirit! Happy Independence Day!

* Let us take the decision to value our nation and let’s not forget the sacrifices of those who helped us in achieving freedom. Happy Independence Day.

Independence Day, Indian Independence Day 2018, 72 Independence Day, independence day photos, Independence Day images, Happy Independence Day 2018, Happy Independence Day 2018 Wishes Images, Quotes: Happy Independence Day!  (Designed by Nidhi Mishra/The Indian Express)

* This Independence Day, take the future of this country in your hands.

* The best way of showing love to our country is by respecting the sacrifices made by our freedom fighters.