Zipping and Unzipping Files in UNIX

Zipping and Unzipping Files in UNIX

There are several methods of archiving files and retrieving archives. I recommend using the “zip” function to compress your files for its ease of use and portability. (Files zipped in Unix can be extracted using various tools on various platforms including Windows).

Below I have provided various “unzip” methods. The “right” unzip method depends upon the method used to zip the file. You can tell the zip method by the file extension (e.g., .zip.tar.gz, etc.)

Zipping Files Using ZIP

This Unix program is compatible with the zip program for Windows and most other operating systems. To zip files, first have the files uploaded to your server, then log into your account with SSH. Navigate to the directory where the files are that you want to zip (for instance by typing cd www then cd sounds to move to your/www/sounds directory). Then type:

zip myzip file1 file2 file3

This puts the files named file1file2, and file3 into a new zip archive called

Unzipping Files

Please note that the unzip method you use is defined by the filename you are trying to unzip. For example, if you are trying to unzip a file called file.tar – you would use the method described in “tar“. Files ending in .gzip or .gz need to be extracted with the method described in “gunzip“.


If you have an archive named and want to get back the files, you would type:


Typing zip or unzip by itself will give you a usage summary, showing nearly all the options available.


To extract a file compressed with tar (e.g., filename.tar), type the following command from your SSH prompt:

tar xvf filename.tar

Basically, this command means that you will see the file “explode”, so don’t worry when you see your screen scrolling wildly. It also means that you will see any errors in the archive.


To extract a file compressed with gunzip, type the following:

gunzip filename_tar.gz

then if you receive no errors, type:

tar xvf filename_tar

The Top 5 Benefits Of Copper

The Top 5 Benefits Of Copper

I’m sure you’re familiar with the mineral copper, but did you know how important it is to living a healthy life? Copper plays an important role in several major processes of the body. In fact, without the proper amount of this vital element, our bodies wouldn’t last long. This is because it assists in the production of many different enzymes which support the body as a whole.

1) Arthritis

Copper is a natural anti-inflammatory. This means that it helps reduce the swelling and the pain associated with the long-lasting battle of arthritis by natural means rather than painkillers.

2) Hair and Eyes

Melanin, an important component of natural dark pigment, can only be produced when melanocytes and tyrosinase (formed from copper) bind. Basically, it helps hair, eyes, and skin stay healthy and youthful. It even helps to prevent grey hair.

3) Brain Stimulation

Food with high copper content is often referred to as “brain food”. It has a an important part to play in the brain because it helps certain proteins in the brain transport faster across membranes. In several studies, copper has been linked with higher creative thinking, demonstrating that copper allows neural pathways to develop in unique ways.

4) Slow Aging

Because copper is a powerful antioxident, it helps to greatly to slow the aging process. One of the primary causes of aging, free radicals, is combated quite effectively with the enzymes created by copper. This can help to prevent different types of macular degeneration, cancer, and kidney malfunctions.

5) Iron Uptake

Copper assists in the absorption of iron through the blood barrier in the intestinal track and the release of the release of the storage sites like the liver; this can help to guarantee healthy blood and oxygenated organs.

How to Take Copper

Copper can usually be absorbed through a proper diet…however, light supplementation can help in significant ways. By wearing copper bracelets or jewelry, the skin absorbs just enough copper to be beneficial to the body (supplements are can be overwhelming to the system). This method especially helps with arthritis to reduce pain. You can also take copper it by drinking water from a copper urn when waking, and if recommended by a doctor, oral supplementation.

Install Latest Git on Centos

Install Latest Git on Centos

  1. Download with yum.yum install git
  2. If you need the latest, try to remove git first.yum remove git
  3. Change directory to /tmp
  4. Download the latest git Example we use 2.16.curl -O -L
  5. Extract tar.tar -zxvf v2.16.0-rc2.tar.gz
  6. Execute as root.
    cd git-v2.16.0
    make clean
    make configure
    sudo make install
  7. Check git version.git --version

how to uninstall git in centos

how to uninstall git in centos

If you were smart enough and used some non-standard prefix when configured Git so that it has been installed under a specific hierarchy, like under /opt/git, then just delete that hierarchy, recursively.

If not, then you could go like this:

1) Fetch the source tarball of exactly the version you built and installed, unpack.

2) Configure it exactly like you did with the original install with regard to installation locations (prefix, exec-prefix etc); supposedly you should just not override anything.

3) Create a temporary directory to perform installation, like this: $ mkdir /var/tmp/git

4) Install Git passing a proper DESTDIR variable to make: $ make DESTDIR=/var/tmp/git install The Git hierarchy will end up created under that temporary directory.

5) Use the created hierarchy to decide which files to delete under the real hierarchy (“/” itself).

The last step is where “the magic” happens so it bears more explanation. For instance, you could run

$ find /var/tmp/git -type f -printf '/%P\n' | xargs -n 10 rm -f

(as root) do delete the files installed by the first mis-installation into the root filesystem. The encantation above uses the /var/tmp/git hierarchy to print the list of files found, but it replaces the “/var/tmp/git” prefix in them with “/”, so that the “/var/tmp/git/usr/bin/git” in the output will end up listed as “/usr/bin/git”. This list is then piped to xargs which runs rm on the file names it reads in packs of ten (just to reduce the number of invocations of rm by one order of magnitude).

After dealing with files, run

$ find /var/tmp/git -type d -printf '/%P\n'

to inspect the list of installed directories. These require manual approach so just look at the generated list and think which of them you could safely rmdir from your system (these will be the directories like “/usr/libexec/git” or something like this; you wouldn’t probably want to delete “/usr/share/man/mann” or something even if it’s empty).

P.S. In the future never install anything into a system by running make install! Most makefiles these days do not support “uninstall” target as they are used to either installing into a private scratch location for testing or to make a package (.rpm, .deb etc) and then the package manager takes care of cleaning up. If you need to install something, try to find an official package or try to backport another official package from a more recent version of your OS, if available. As the last resort, try using the checkinstall tool which tries to create a binary package out of your make install run. This sucks, but still better than bare make install.

These Amazon devices can now be delivered in two-hours

These Amazon devices can now be delivered in two-hours

These Amazon devices can now be delivered in two-hours

E-commerce major Amazon has announced that Fire TV Stick, Kindle and Echo devices are now eligible for 2-hours ultra-fast delivery through its Prime Now app. For those unaware, the Prime Now app is only for ultra-fast delivery services for Prime members and currently the service is available in Bengaluru, Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad.

Prime members in these four cities can avail a discount of 15% as an introductory offer on Amazon devices. The devices includes Amazon Fire TV Stick, the all-new Kindle, Kindle Paperwhite, Amazon Echo Dot and Echo and can be purchased via Prime Now app for a limited period of time. Amazon claims that the device will be delivered to their doorsteps within 2-hours after placing the order with an extended delivery time of 6 am till midnight.

The Prime Now app is available on Android as well as iOS devices, and can be downloaded via their respective app stores.

At the launch, Jayshree Gururaj, Director – Amazon Devices said “Prime Now brings our fastest and most convenient delivery option for Amazon Devices. You can now get your Fire TV Stick delivered within hours to watch your favourite show or movie, or get your Kindle delivered before you board the flight tonight to your holiday,”

Adding to this, Siddharth Nambiar – Head of Prime Now, India said, “We are excited to add Fire TV Stick, Kindle and the Echo range of devices to Prime Now selection of over 10,000 products available in hours. We also have a limited period discount of 15% for these products on Prime Now app”.

Earlier in May, Amazon had introduced faster delivery on the Amazon Now app and rebranded the service to Prime Now. The Prime Now product range includes categories like fruits and vegetables, grocery, staples, meat, and other home and kitchen products.


Source by gadgetsnow

Types Of GST Returns

Types Of GST Returns

India is heading towards its biggest tax reforms ever. The whole World is watching this roll out, as the World 3rdlargest economy is moving towards a destination based tax-reporting structure. Every transaction has to be reported through the last mile with a common invoice, identifiable to the seller and recipient of goods and services.

The GST Council and the Ministry of Finance have come up with a great solution to record all such invoices in one place and collate data for the taxpayer. The processes have been simplified, and many taxes have been removed. The whole nation shall report using the same structure irrespective of where and how you carry your business.

A widespread IT system has been deployed by the Ministry to cope up with such a huge influx of data. It is called the GSTN (Goods and Service Tax Network) that will house all the information of sellers and buyers together, collaborate the details submitted and even maintain 3 registers for you for future reference and anytime reconciliation.

In this article, we’ve explained various types of GST Returns, who should file GST returns online, the format of GST return, the process of filing GST return and much more..

Understanding the GST Returns

For properly updating the invoices, Indian taxpayers and businesses have to file certain returns with the Government. These returns have to be mandatorily filed as any non-compliance towards the same may lead to disallowance of input tax credit, apart from attracting penalties and interests, etc. Proper filing of information and passing the same in the returns is a mandatory process for smooth flow of credit to the last recipient.

The returns have been designed so that all transactions are in sync with each other and that no transaction is left unattended between the buyer and the seller. The tale starts from GSTR-1. All the data is stored in GSTN, which can be accessed by the users/taxpayers anytime online.


Types of GST Returns to be filed by normal taxpayers


The taxpayer records all his outward supplies of goods and services in details in this form. This has to be mandatorily done by the 10th of the next month (GSTN is frequently changing the due date of filing GSTR1. So, keep checking announcements).

This will form the basis for all future flow and match for credit reconciliations. GSTR-1 is a detailed form containing 13 different heads. The critical headings are:

  • GSTIN of the Taxable Person – Auto-populated result
  • Name – Auto-populated result
  • Gross Turnover in Last Financial Year – This has to be filed only once. From next year onwards, this field will be auto-populated
  • The Period for which the return is being filed – Month & Year shall be available as a drop-down for selection
  • Taxable outward supplies – Here, IGST shall be filled only in the case of inter-state movement whereas CGST and SGST shall be filled in case of intra-state movement. Moreover, details of any exempted sales or sale at nil rate of tax shall also be mentioned here
  • Outward Supplies to end customer, where the value exceeds Rs. 2.5 lakhs – Other than mentioned, all such supplies are optional in nature
  • Any other supplies not covered in above 2 sections
  • Debit Notes or Credit Notes Details
  • Amendments to the details of any outward supplies of previous periods – This does not cover any changes by way of debit/credit notes
  • Exempted, Nil-Rated and Non-GST Supplies – This is a Non-GST section. When the details of exempted sales or nil-rated sales have already been mentioned anywhere above, then only Non-GST shall be filled up here
  • Export Sales
  • Tax Liability arising out of advance receipts
  • Tax Paid

Learn how to file GSTR-1



It is available on the 11th of the next month for the recipients to see and validate the information therein. Recipients have time between 11th – 15th of the next month to change any information, delete or add, based on their books of accounts.

Update as on April 2018: GSTR-2A has been kept on hold by GSTN.



This form is the culmination of all inward supplies of goods and services as approved by the recipient of the services. The due date is 15th of the next month. It is auto-populated with the details of GSTR-2A. GSTR-2 shall include the following heads:

  • GSTIN of the Taxable Person – Auto populated result
  • Name – Auto populated result
  • The Period for which the return is being filed – Month & Year shall be available as a drop-down for selection
  • Details of all inward supplies – Auto populated with the details of GSTR-1. The taxable person can make any further addition or changes to the invoice here
  • Changes to the inward supplies made for any previous period
  • Import of Goods – Imports are treated as Inter-state supply and IGST shall be applicable on the same
  • Import of Goods in earlier periods
  • Services received from a person outside India (Import of Services)
  • Import of Services in earlier periods
  • Debit notes or Credit notes Details
  • Amendments made to Debit or Credit notes of previous periods
  • Inward supplies emanating from Unregistered persons
  • Credits received from an Input Service Distributor – Auto populated from details of GSTR-6
  • TDS credit from specified persons – Auto populated from details of GSTR-7
  • TCS credit from E-Commerce operators – Auto populated from details of GSTR-8
  • Input Tax Credit remaining to be taken against an invoice, from which initially a partial invoice was taken
  • Reverse Charge tax liability
  • Amendment to such reverse charge tax liability
  • Tax Paid
  • Input Tax Credit Reversals – A dropdown containing reasons for such reversals shall be made available
  • Amendments to such Input Tax Credit Reversals

Learn more about GSTR-2 Return Filing

Update as on April 2018: GSTR-2 has been kept on hold by GSTN.


The form shall be auto-populated after filing of GSTR-2 on the 15th of the next month, having all the correct or changed information. The supplier shall have the choice to accept or reject the changes made by the recipient. Following such acceptance, the GSTR-1 shall be revised to such extent.



This form is auto prepared by 20th of the next month. It will have the details of all outward as well as inward supplies of goods and services as furnished in GSTR-1 and GSTR-2. After considering both the details, GSTN will determine your input tax credit availability or the amount of tax payable.

It will have the following details:

  • GSTIN of the Taxable Person – Auto-populated result
  • Name – Auto-populated result
  • Address of the person – Auto-populated result
  • The Period for which the return is being filed – Month & Year shall be available as a drop-down for selection
  • Total turnover
  1. Export Turnover
  2. Taxable Turnover
  3. Non-GST Turnover
  4. Nil Rated or Exempted Turnover
  5. Total Turnover (Sum of 1-4)
  • Details of outward supplies
  1. Inter-state supply to end customers
  2. Intra-state supply to end customers
  3. Inter-state supply to registered persons
  4. Intra-state supply to registered persons
  5. Exports
  6. Amendments to Sales Invoices, Debit Notes and Credit Notes
  7. Tax liability on such outward supplies
  • Details of inward supplies
  1. Inter-State received
  2. Intra-State received
  3. Imports
  4. Amendments to Purchase invoices, Debit Notes and Credit Notes
  5. Tax liability on such inward supplies
  6. Reversals of Input Tax Credit
  • Total tax liability for the period
  • TDS received for the period
  • TCS received for the period
  • ITC for the period

Apart from the above details, a Part B has to be filed containing the details of,

  • Any taxes, interests, penalties or fees paid during the period
  • Any refunds claimed during the period w.r.t. cash ledger



This is the annual return, which the taxpayer has to file by 31st December of the coming financial year. It is nothing but the accumulation of all 12 monthly GSTR-3 of the taxpayer. It would also include the amount of tax paid during the year, including details of exports or imports.

Apart from the above forms, the Government shall serve those taxpayers who fail to furnish the returns on time, notice in Form GSTR-3A.

After the GSTR-3 is fully accepted for the month, then final input tax credit shall be communicated through form GST ITC-1. The details of ITC-1 has to be confirmed in due time to get the credit for that month. If the same is not done in due time, then it will disallow the credit for the month and will be computed as a tax liability for the month instead.

Returns to be filed by Composition Tax Payers


Similar to the GSTR-2A above, GSTR-4A is generated quarterly for composition scheme taxpayers. It has the details of the inward supplies as reported by suppliers in GSTR-1.



With the auto-populated details of GSTR-4A, the taxpayer can furnish all his outward supplies here. The due date is 18th of the following month and has to be filed quarterly. It also contains the details of tax payable and payment of tax.



This is the annual return for all composition taxpayers. It has to be filed by 31st December of the coming financial year and includes all the quarterly returns filed by the composition taxpayer.


Returns to be filed by Foreign Non-Resident Taxpayer


This is a detailed form containing the particulars of outward supplies, imports, tax paid, input tax availed and remaining stock. This has to be filed monthly within 20th of the next month or if the registration is given up, then within 7 days of such surrender or expiry of registration.


Returns to be filed by an Input Service Distributor


This form will be generated by 11th of next month after the suppliers have filed their GSTR-1 on 10th of the next month. It will be auto-populated with the details of inward supplier made to them. It has to be filed on a monthly basis by the ISD.



Once the details are confirmed or corrected by the ISD, then GSTR-6 will be generated. It has to be filed by the ISD by 13th of the next month. This is also a monthly filing.

Returns to be filed by a Tax Deductor


Details of the tax deductions made during the month have to be furnished here. The due date is 10th of the next month.



This is a TDS certificate, which is auto-generated upon filing the GSTR-7 by the tax Deductor. It will be available for the assessees to download and keep a record of. It will contain details of the tax deducted and the total amount of payment made.


Return to be filed by an E-Commerce Portal


This return shall contain all the supplies made by the E-Commerce seller and the amount of tax collected as well. It has to be filed by 10th of the next month.

For those assessees whose annual turnover exceeds INR 1 Crore, then a reconciliation statement in Form GSTR-9B has to be filed by 31st December of the next fiscal year. It has to be filed annually and is basically an audited annual account, duly certified by competent authority.

Where the assessee is a Government body or a United Nations Body, then a monthly Form GSTR-11 has to be filed by 28th of the next month. These bodies have a UIN (Unique Identification Number) and hence will be required to furnish the details of inward supplies.

Where a taxable person’s registration has been surrendered or cancelled, then a final return in Form GSTR-10 has to be filed within 3 months of such cancellation or registration. It will declare the input tax credit and capital goods held by the taxpayer, tax payable and paid at such time.

The Government has automated all the forms together by bringing the same details on a real-time basis in front of the taxpayers. The step, which is of paramount importance, is Step No. 1, i.e. FORM GSTR-1. It will form the basis of all further activities.

Any shortcomings or short filings of information in the details provided by the suppliers can be rectified, changed or deleted by the recipients in ample period of time. It is a seamless process that matches all information together to get the final credit figures and tax payable if any.

The payment challans are also a very crucial part of all the filing process. Without them, it is not possible to clear tax payments and dues in due course of time and also claim credit.

  1. PMT-1: An online tax liability register arising out of return or non-return related liabilities of the taxpayer.
  2. PMT-2: Credit balance online as in GSTN
  3. PMT-2A: Re-credit addition to the GSTN balance of a taxpayer
  4. PMT-3: Online cash ledger

Note: The above forms are maintained free of cost by the GSTN for each taxpayer. It can be accessed anytime through a User ID and Password, 24X7.

  1. PMT-4: Challan for payment of GST
  2. PMT-5: Payment register for unregistered taxpayers
  3. PMT-6: Application for claiming missing credit

Where it is found that there is an excess credit available in the account of a taxpayer, then the taxpayer has an option to claim a refund of such excess credit within the prescribed time. The refund application forms are different for the State and Central Governments.

There are 10 forms prescribed for the Central Government, out of which only 5 are applicable to the State application. The main form is RFD-01 where the application for refund is made.


GSTR 3B Return

In order to ease the burden on taxpayers, tax authorities have introduced a simple return form called as GSTR 3B. This has to be used only for the month of July and August. Every registered taxpayer (Except for composition scheme) needs to file a separate GSTR 3B for each GSTIN they have.

This is more like a self-declaration return and the taxpayer is not required to provide invoice level information in this form. Only total values for each field have to be provided.

The due date for filing GSTR 3B return for July was 20th August – It has been extended to 25th August now.

As of April 2018, Government has made it mandatory to file GSTR 3B every month until further notice.

Learn more about GSTR 3B format and how to file it online.


How To File GST Returns Online?

No matter whether you are a trader or a manufacturer, you will have to file returns mandatorily. It is a matter of perception when it comes to defining the whole return filing process, as some may treat it as cumbersome or some may feel happy with the level of automation available. Draft GST return format provided by government can easily confuse a small business owner who doesn’t have any accounting knowledge.

ProfitBooks is a popular GST compliant accounting software which can help you to easily file GST returns online. It does auto-reconciliation of mismatches and gives you a real time report of the differences between you and your customer/vendor. You can even create GST invoice in correct format.



Via phpMyAdmin

    1. Access phpMyAdmin via your Control Panel. For instructions, please see: Accessing phpMyAdmin for your DV server.
    2. Click on the MySQL database for your WordPress blog. This opens phpMyAdmin in a new browser window or tab, depending on your browser preferences.
    3. Click on wp-options.
    4. Click on Edit on the line for siteurl. Repeat this process for the home row, also found in the wp_options table.
      Figure 5.
    5. Enter your new blog domain name and click the Go button. For this example, we are changing the domain from to 8.
    6. Repeat this process for the home row, also found in the wp_options table.
    7. Be sure that you rename the folder to the new URL in FTP or the File Manager. That’s it!


Remember that your WordPress Dashboard has now changed and will be using the URL you entered in Step 6.



Via WordPress Dashboard

  1. After moving your site files (if necessary), log into your your WordPress Dashboard as an administrator.
  2. Next, click on Settings from the menu, and then General.
    Click on General to get started.
  3. The two fields we’ll change are WordPress Address (URL) and Site Address (URL).
  4. Enter the URL you’d like to use. For this example, we’ll change the two fields to
  5. Scroll down the page and click on the Save Changes button.
  6. Be sure that you rename the folder to the new URL in FTP or the File Manager.

That’s it!


Remember that your WordPress Dashboard has now changed and will be using the URL you entered in Step 4.

CentOS crontab – Automate System Tasks

CentOS crontab – Automate System Tasks

We’ll show you, how to use CentOS crontab. How to automate system tasks on CentOS 7, using Centos crontab. Crontab software utility, is a time-based job scheduler in Unix-like operating systems. Cron is driven by a crontab (cron table) file, a configuration file that specifies shell commands to run periodically on a given schedule. The crontab files are stored where the lists of jobs and other instructions to the cron daemon are kept. Users can have their own individual crontab files and often there is a system-wide crontab file (usually in /etc or a subdirectory of /etc) that only system administrators can edit.

1. Connect via SSH and update the system software

First of all, connect to your Linux VPS via SSH and update all your system software to the latest version available. You can use the following command to do that:

sudo yum update

2.  Verify if cronie package is installed

To automate the system tasks, or better known as jobs under Linux, you can use an utility called Cron. Using Cron you can run scripts automatically within a specified period of time, create backup of your databases or other important files, monitor the services running on your server and many other things. To use the Cron utility, you need to install the cronie package on your system. It should be already installed on your server. To confirm, issue the following command:

sudo rpm -q cronie

3. Install cronie package

If it is not installed, you can use yum to install it. Yum is a package manager which you can use to install and manage software on CentOS 7. Run the command below:

sudo yum install cronie

4. Check if  crond service is running

The cron jobs are picked by the crond service. To check whether the crond service is running on your CentOS VPS, you can use the following command:

sudo systemctl status crond.service

5. Configure cron jobs

To configure cron jobs you need to modify the /etc/crontab file. Please note that it can only be modified by the root user. To check the current configuration, you can use the following command:

sudo cat /etc/crontab

The output should be similar to the one below:


# For details see man 4 crontabs

# Example of job definition:
# .---------------- minute (0 - 59)
# |  .------------- hour (0 - 23)
# |  |  .---------- day of month (1 - 31)
# |  |  |  .------- month (1 - 12) OR jan,feb,mar,apr ...
# |  |  |  |  .---- day of week (0 - 6) (Sunday=0 or 7) OR sun,mon,tue,wed,thu,fri,sat
# |  |  |  |  |
# *  *  *  *  * user-name  command to be executed
37 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly
23 5 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily
19 3 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.weekly
23 0 6 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.monthly

As you can see the crontab file already contain explanation about how to define your own jobs. The syntax is the following:

minute hour day month day_of_week username command

An asterisk (*) in the crontab can be used to specify all valid values, so if you like command to be executed every day at midnight, you can add the following cron job:

0 0 * * * root /sample_command >/dev/null 2>&1

Your cron job will be run at:

2016-06-10 00:00:00
2016-06-11 00:00:00
2016-06-12 00:00:00
2016-06-13 00:00:00
2016-06-14 00:00:00

Specific users can create cron jobs too. The cron jobs for specific users are located in /var/spool/cron/username. When you create cron jobs for specific users you do not need to specify the username in the cron job. Therefore the syntax will be like the one below:

minute hour day month day_of_week command

6.  Restart the crond service

After you make the changes restart the crond service using the command below:

sudo systemctl restart crond.service

For more information you can check the man pages:

man cron


man crontab

If it is difficult for you to set up correct cron jobs at the beginning, you can use some cron job calculator to generate the cron job expression. There are several good cron job calculators available on the Internet.

Read Also: Ubuntu crontab

Of course you don’t have to use CentOs crontab, if you use one of our CentOS VPS hosting services, in which case you can simply ask our expert Linux admins to help you with crontab on CentOS to Automate system tasks. They are available 24×7 and will take care of your request immediately.

PS. If you liked this post, on how to use the CentOS crontab,  please share it with your friends on the social networks using the buttons on the left or simply leave a reply below. Thanks.