8 Proven Health Benefits of Dates

Dates are the fruit of the date palm tree, which is grown in many tropical regions of the world. Dates have become quite popular in recent years.

Almost all dates sold in Western countries are dried.

You can tell whether or not dates are dried based on their appearance. A wrinkled skin indicates they are dried, whereas a smooth skin indicates freshness.

Depending on the variety, fresh dates are fairly small in size and range in color from bright red to bright yellow. Medjool and Deglet Noor dates are the most commonly consumed varieties.

Dates are chewy with a sweet flavor. They are also high in some important nutrients and have a variety of advantages and uses.

This article will discuss 8 health benefits of eating dates and how to incorporate them into your diet.

1. Very Nutritious

Dates in a White Bowl

Dates have an excellent nutrition profile.

Since they’re dried, their calorie content is higher than most fresh fruit. The calorie content of dates is similar to that of other dried fruits, such as raisins and figs (1).

Most of the calories in dates come from carbs. The rest are from a very small amount of protein. Despite their calories, dates contain some important vitamins and minerals in addition to a significant amount of fiber.

A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving provides the following nutrients (1):

  • Calories: 277
  • Carbs: 75 grams
  • Fiber: 7 grams
  • Protein: 2 grams
  • Potassium: 20% of the RDI
  • Magnesium: 14% of the RDI
  • Copper: 18% of the RDI
  • Manganese: 15% of the RDI
  • Iron: 5% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B6: 12% of the RDI

Dates are also high in antioxidants, which may contribute to many of their health benefits (2).

SUMMARYDates contain several vitamins and minerals, in addition to fiber and antioxidants. However, they are high in calories since they are a dried fruit.

2. High in Fiber

Getting enough fiber is important for your overall health.

With almost 7 grams of fiber in a 3.5-ounce serving, including dates in your diet is a great way to increase your fiber intake (1).

Fiber can benefit your digestive health by preventing constipation. It promotes regular bowel movements by contributing to the formation of stool (3).

In one study, 21 people who consumed 7 dates per day for 21 days experienced improvements in stool frequency and had a significant increase in bowel movements compared to when they did not eat dates (4).

Furthermore, the fiber in dates may be beneficial for blood sugar control. Fiber slows digestion and may help prevent blood sugar levels from spiking too high after eating (5).

For this reason, dates have a low glycemic index (GI), which measures how quickly your blood sugar rises after eating a certain food (6).

SUMMARYDates are high in fiber, which may be beneficial for preventing constipation and controlling blood sugar control.

3. High in Disease-Fighting Antioxidants

Dates provide various antioxidants that have a number of health benefits to offer, including a reduced risk of several diseases.

Antioxidants protect your cells from free radicals, which are unstable molecules that may cause harmful reactions in your body and lead to disease (7).

Compared to similar types of fruit, such as figs and dried plums, dates appear to have the highest antioxidant content (8).

Here’s an overview of the three most potent antioxidants in dates:

  • Flavonoids: Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that may help reduce inflammation and have been studied for their potential to reduce the risk of diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and certain types of cancer (29).
  • Carotenoids: Carotenoids are proven to promote heart health and may also reduce the risk of eye-related disorders, such as macular degeneration (210).
  • Phenolic acid: Known for its anti-inflammatory properties, phenolic acid may help lower the risk of cancer and heart disease (1112).

SUMMARYDates contain several types of antioxidants that may help prevent the development of certain chronic illnesses, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes.

4. May Promote Brain Health

Eating dates may help improve brain function.

Laboratory studies have found dates to be helpful for lowering inflammatory markers, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), in the brain. High levels of IL-6 are associated with a higher risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s (1314).

Additionally, animal studies have shown dates to be helpful for reducing the activity of amyloid beta proteins, which can form plaques in the brain (13).

When plaques accumulate in the brain, they may disturb communication between brain cells, which can ultimately lead to brain cell death and Alzheimer’s disease (15).

One animal study found that mice fed food mixed with dates had significantly better memory and learning ability, as well as less anxiety-related behaviors, compared to those that did not eat them (16).

The potential brain-boosting properties of dates have been attributed to their content of antioxidants known to reduce inflammation, including flavonoids (13).

However, human studies are needed to confirm the role of dates in brain health.

SUMMARYDates may be helpful for lowering inflammation and preventing plaques from forming in the brain, which is important for preventing Alzheimer’s disease.

5. May Promote Natural Labor

Dates have been studied for their potential to promote and ease late-term labor in pregnant women.

Eating these fruits throughout the last few weeks of pregnancy may promote cervical dilation and lower the need for induced labor. They may also be helpful for reducing labor time (17).

In one study, 69 women who consumed 6 dates per day for 4 weeks prior to their due date were 20% more likely to go into labor naturally and were in labor for significantly less time than those who did not eat them (18).

Another study of 154 pregnant women found that those who ate dates were much less likely to be induced compared to those who did not (19).

A third study found similar results in 91 pregnant women who consumed 70–76 grams of dates daily starting the 37th week of pregnancy. They were in active labor for an average of 4 fewer hours than those who did not eat dates (17).

Although eating dates appears to help promote labor and reduce labor duration, more research is needed to confirm these effects.

The role dates may have in pregnancy is likely due to compounds that bind to oxytocin receptors and appear to mimic the effects of oxytocin in the body. Oxytocin is a hormone that causes labor contractions during childbirth (1820).

Additionally, dates contain tannins, which are compounds that have been shown to help facilitate contractions. They are also a good source of natural sugar and calories, which are necessary to maintain energy levels during labor (20).

SUMMARYDates may promote and ease natural labor for pregnant women when consumed during the last few weeks of pregnancy.

6. Excellent Natural Sweetener

Dates are a source of fructose, which is a natural type of sugar found in fruit.

For this reason, dates are very sweet and also have a subtle caramel-like taste. They make a great healthy substitute for white sugar in recipes due to the nutrients, fiber and antioxidants that they provide.

The best way to substitute dates for white sugar is to make date paste, as in this recipe. It is made by mixing dates with water in a blender. A rule of thumb is to replace sugar with date paste at a 1:1 ratio.

For example, if the recipe calls for 1 cup of sugar, you’ll replace it with 1 cup of date paste.

It is important to note that although dates are high in fiber and nutrients, they are still fairly high in calories and best consumed in moderation.

SUMMARYDates are a healthy substitute for white sugar in recipes due to their sweet taste, nutrients, fiber and antioxidants.

7. Other Potential Health Benefits

Dates have been claimed to have a few other health benefits that have not yet been extensively studied.

  • Bone health: Dates contain several minerals, including phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. All of these have been studied for their potential to prevent bone-related conditions like osteoporosis (121).
  • Blood sugar control: Dates have the potential to help with blood sugar regulation due to their low glycemic index, fiber and antioxidants. Thus, eating them may benefit diabetes management (2).

Although these potential health benefits are promising, more human studies are needed before conclusions can be made.

SUMMARYDates have been claimed to promote bone health and aid in blood sugar control, but these effects have not been studied sufficiently.

8. Easy to Add to Your Diet

Dates are incredibly versatile and make a delicious snack. They are often paired with other foods, such as almonds, nut butter or soft cheese.

Dates are also very sticky, which makes them useful as a binder in baked goods, such as cookies and bars. You can also combine dates with nuts and seeds to make healthy snack bars or energy balls, as in this recipe.

What’s more, you can use dates to sweeten up sauces, such as salad dressings and marinades, or blend them into smoothies and oatmeal.

It is important to note that dates are high in calories and their sweet taste makes them easy to overeat. For this reason, they are best consumed in moderation.

SUMMARYThere are many different ways to eat dates. They are commonly eaten plain but can also be incorporated into other popular dishes.

The Bottom Line

Dates are a very healthy fruit to include in your diet.

They are high in several nutrients, fiber and antioxidants, all of which may provide health benefits ranging from improved digestion to a reduced risk of disease.

There are several ways to add dates to your diet. One popular way to eat them is as a natural sweetener in various dishes. They also make a great snack.

It’s easiest to find dates in their dried form, though these are higher in calories than fresh fruit so it is important to eat them in moderation.

Dates are definitely worth adding to your diet, as they are both nutritious and delicious.

Array Functions

  • array_change_key_case — Changes the case of all keys in an array
  • array_chunk — Split an array into chunks
  • array_column — Return the values from a single column in the input array
  • array_combine — Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values
  • array_count_values — Counts all the values of an array
  • array_diff_assoc — Computes the difference of arrays with additional index check
  • array_diff_key — Computes the difference of arrays using keys for comparison
  • array_diff_uassoc — Computes the difference of arrays with additional index check which is performed by a user supplied callback function
  • array_diff_ukey — Computes the difference of arrays using a callback function on the keys for comparison
  • array_diff — Computes the difference of arrays
  • array_fill_keys — Fill an array with values, specifying keys
  • array_fill — Fill an array with values
  • array_filter — Filters elements of an array using a callback function
  • array_flip — Exchanges all keys with their associated values in an array
  • array_intersect_assoc — Computes the intersection of arrays with additional index check
  • array_intersect_key — Computes the intersection of arrays using keys for comparison
  • array_intersect_uassoc — Computes the intersection of arrays with additional index check, compares indexes by a callback function
  • array_intersect_ukey — Computes the intersection of arrays using a callback function on the keys for comparison
  • array_intersect — Computes the intersection of arrays
  • array_key_exists — Checks if the given key or index exists in the array
  • array_key_first — Gets the first key of an array
  • array_key_last — Gets the last key of an array
  • array_keys — Return all the keys or a subset of the keys of an array
  • array_map — Applies the callback to the elements of the given arrays
  • array_merge_recursive — Merge one or more arrays recursively
  • array_merge — Merge one or more arrays
  • array_multisort — Sort multiple or multi-dimensional arrays
  • array_pad — Pad array to the specified length with a value
  • array_pop — Pop the element off the end of array
  • array_product — Calculate the product of values in an array
  • array_push — Push one or more elements onto the end of array
  • array_rand — Pick one or more random keys out of an array
  • array_reduce — Iteratively reduce the array to a single value using a callback function
  • array_replace_recursive — Replaces elements from passed arrays into the first array recursively
  • array_replace — Replaces elements from passed arrays into the first array
  • array_reverse — Return an array with elements in reverse order
  • array_search — Searches the array for a given value and returns the first corresponding key if successful
  • array_shift — Shift an element off the beginning of array
  • array_slice — Extract a slice of the array
  • array_splice — Remove a portion of the array and replace it with something else
  • array_sum — Calculate the sum of values in an array
  • array_udiff_assoc — Computes the difference of arrays with additional index check, compares data by a callback function
  • array_udiff_uassoc — Computes the difference of arrays with additional index check, compares data and indexes by a callback function
  • array_udiff — Computes the difference of arrays by using a callback function for data comparison
  • array_uintersect_assoc — Computes the intersection of arrays with additional index check, compares data by a callback function
  • array_uintersect_uassoc — Computes the intersection of arrays with additional index check, compares data and indexes by separate callback functions
  • array_uintersect — Computes the intersection of arrays, compares data by a callback function
  • array_unique — Removes duplicate values from an array
  • array_unshift — Prepend one or more elements to the beginning of an array
  • array_values — Return all the values of an array
  • array_walk_recursive — Apply a user function recursively to every member of an array
  • array_walk — Apply a user supplied function to every member of an array
  • array — Create an array
  • arsort — Sort an array in reverse order and maintain index association
  • asort — Sort an array and maintain index association
  • compact — Create array containing variables and their values
  • count — Count all elements in an array, or something in an object
  • current — Return the current element in an array
  • each — Return the current key and value pair from an array and advance the array cursor
  • end — Set the internal pointer of an array to its last element
  • extract — Import variables into the current symbol table from an array
  • in_array — Checks if a value exists in an array
  • key_exists — Alias of array_key_exists
  • key — Fetch a key from an array
  • krsort — Sort an array by key in reverse order
  • ksort — Sort an array by key
  • list — Assign variables as if they were an array
  • natcasesort — Sort an array using a case insensitive “natural order” algorithm
  • natsort — Sort an array using a “natural order” algorithm
  • next — Advance the internal pointer of an array
  • pos — Alias of current
  • prev — Rewind the internal array pointer
  • range — Create an array containing a range of elements
  • reset — Set the internal pointer of an array to its first element
  • rsort — Sort an array in reverse order
  • shuffle — Shuffle an array
  • sizeof — Alias of count
  • sort — Sort an array
  • uasort — Sort an array with a user-defined comparison function and maintain index association
  • uksort — Sort an array by keys using a user-defined comparison function
  • usort — Sort an array by values using a user-defined comparison function

date in php

Returns a string formatted according to the given format string using the given integer timestamp or the current time if no timestamp is given. In other words, timestamp is optional and defaults to the value of time().

Parameters ¶


The format of the outputted date string. See the formatting options below. There are also severalpredefined date constants that may be used instead, so for example DATE_RSS contains the format string ‘D, d M Y H:i:s’.

formatcharacterDescriptionExample returned values
dDay of the month, 2 digits with leading zeros01 to 31
DA textual representation of a day, three lettersMon through Sun
jDay of the month without leading zeros1 to 31
l(lowercase ‘L’)A full textual representation of the day of the weekSunday through Saturday
NISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week (added in PHP 5.1.0)1 (for Monday) through 7 (for Sunday)
SEnglish ordinal suffix for the day of the month, 2 charactersstndrd or th. Works well with j
wNumeric representation of the day of the week0 (for Sunday) through 6 (for Saturday)
zThe day of the year (starting from 0)0 through 365
WISO-8601 week number of year, weeks starting on MondayExample: 42 (the 42nd week in the year)
FA full textual representation of a month, such as January or MarchJanuary through December
mNumeric representation of a month, with leading zeros01 through 12
MA short textual representation of a month, three lettersJan through Dec
nNumeric representation of a month, without leading zeros1 through 12
tNumber of days in the given month28 through 31
LWhether it’s a leap year1 if it is a leap year, 0otherwise.
oISO-8601 week-numbering year. This has the same value as Y, except that if the ISO week number (W) belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used instead. (added in PHP 5.1.0)Examples: 1999or 2003
YA full numeric representation of a year, 4 digitsExamples: 1999or 2003
yA two digit representation of a yearExamples: 99 or 03
aLowercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiemam or pm
AUppercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiemAM or PM
BSwatch Internet time000 through 999
g12-hour format of an hour without leading zeros1 through 12
G24-hour format of an hour without leading zeros0 through 23
h12-hour format of an hour with leading zeros01 through 12
H24-hour format of an hour with leading zeros00 through 23
iMinutes with leading zeros00 to 59
sSeconds, with leading zeros00 through 59
uMicroseconds (added in PHP 5.2.2). Note that date() will always generate000000 since it takes an integer parameter, whereas DateTime::format()does support microseconds if DateTime was created with microseconds.Example: 654321
vMilliseconds (added in PHP 7.0.0). Same note applies as for u.Example: 654
eTimezone identifier (added in PHP 5.1.0)Examples: UTCGMTAtlantic/Azores
I (capital i)Whether or not the date is in daylight saving time1 if Daylight Saving Time, 0otherwise.
ODifference to Greenwich time (GMT) in hoursExample: +0200
PDifference to Greenwich time (GMT) with colon between hours and minutes (added in PHP 5.1.3)Example: +02:00
TTimezone abbreviationExamples: ESTMDT …
ZTimezone offset in seconds. The offset for timezones west of UTC is always negative, and for those east of UTC is always positive.-43200 through 50400
Full Date/Time
cISO 8601 date (added in PHP 5)2004-02-12T15:19:21+00:00
r» RFC 2822 formatted dateExample: Thu, 21 Dec 2000 16:01:07 +0200
USeconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT)See also time()

Unrecognized characters in the format string will be printed as-is. The Z format will always return 0 when using gmdate().


Since this function only accepts integer timestamps the u format character is only useful when using the date_format() function with user based timestamps created with date_create()

String function in php

  • addcslashes — Quote string with slashes in a C style
  • addslashes — Quote string with slashes
  • bin2hex — Convert binary data into hexadecimal representation
  • chop — Alias of rtrim
  • chr — Generate a single-byte string from a number
  • chunk_split — Split a string into smaller chunks
  • convert_cyr_string — Convert from one Cyrillic character set to another
  • convert_uudecode — Decode a uuencoded string
  • convert_uuencode — Uuencode a string
  • count_chars — Return information about characters used in a string
  • crc32 — Calculates the crc32 polynomial of a string
  • crypt — One-way string hashing
  • echo — Output one or more strings
  • explode — Split a string by a string
  • fprintf — Write a formatted string to a stream
  • get_html_translation_table — Returns the translation table used by htmlspecialchars and htmlentities
  • hebrev — Convert logical Hebrew text to visual text
  • hebrevc — Convert logical Hebrew text to visual text with newline conversion
  • hex2bin — Decodes a hexadecimally encoded binary string
  • html_entity_decode — Convert HTML entities to their corresponding characters
  • htmlentities — Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities
  • htmlspecialchars_decode — Convert special HTML entities back to characters
  • htmlspecialchars — Convert special characters to HTML entities
  • implode — Join array elements with a string
  • join — Alias of implode
  • lcfirst — Make a string’s first character lowercase
  • levenshtein — Calculate Levenshtein distance between two strings
  • localeconv — Get numeric formatting information
  • ltrim — Strip whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning of a string
  • md5_file — Calculates the md5 hash of a given file
  • md5 — Calculate the md5 hash of a string
  • metaphone — Calculate the metaphone key of a string
  • money_format — Formats a number as a currency string
  • nl_langinfo — Query language and locale information
  • nl2br — Inserts HTML line breaks before all newlines in a string
  • number_format — Format a number with grouped thousands
  • ord — Convert the first byte of a string to a value between 0 and 255
  • parse_str — Parses the string into variables
  • print — Output a string
  • printf — Output a formatted string
  • quoted_printable_decode — Convert a quoted-printable string to an 8 bit string
  • quoted_printable_encode — Convert a 8 bit string to a quoted-printable string
  • quotemeta — Quote meta characters
  • rtrim — Strip whitespace (or other characters) from the end of a string
  • setlocale — Set locale information
  • sha1_file — Calculate the sha1 hash of a file
  • sha1 — Calculate the sha1 hash of a string
  • similar_text — Calculate the similarity between two strings
  • soundex — Calculate the soundex key of a string
  • sprintf — Return a formatted string
  • sscanf — Parses input from a string according to a format
  • str_getcsv — Parse a CSV string into an array
  • str_ireplace — Case-insensitive version of str_replace
  • str_pad — Pad a string to a certain length with another string
  • str_repeat — Repeat a string
  • str_replace — Replace all occurrences of the search string with the replacement string
  • str_rot13 — Perform the rot13 transform on a string
  • str_shuffle — Randomly shuffles a string
  • str_split — Convert a string to an array
  • str_word_count — Return information about words used in a string
  • strcasecmp — Binary safe case-insensitive string comparison
  • strchr — Alias of strstr
  • strcmp — Binary safe string comparison
  • strcoll — Locale based string comparison
  • strcspn — Find length of initial segment not matching mask
  • strip_tags — Strip HTML and PHP tags from a string
  • stripcslashes — Un-quote string quoted with addcslashes
  • stripos — Find the position of the first occurrence of a case-insensitive substring in a string
  • stripslashes — Un-quotes a quoted string
  • stristr — Case-insensitive strstr
  • strlen — Get string length
  • strnatcasecmp — Case insensitive string comparisons using a “natural order” algorithm
  • strnatcmp — String comparisons using a “natural order” algorithm
  • strncasecmp — Binary safe case-insensitive string comparison of the first n characters
  • strncmp — Binary safe string comparison of the first n characters
  • strpbrk — Search a string for any of a set of characters
  • strpos — Find the position of the first occurrence of a substring in a string
  • strrchr — Find the last occurrence of a character in a string
  • strrev — Reverse a string
  • strripos — Find the position of the last occurrence of a case-insensitive substring in a string
  • strrpos — Find the position of the last occurrence of a substring in a string
  • strspn — Finds the length of the initial segment of a string consisting entirely of characters contained within a given mask
  • strstr — Find the first occurrence of a string
  • strtok — Tokenize string
  • strtolower — Make a string lowercase
  • strtoupper — Make a string uppercase
  • strtr — Translate characters or replace substrings
  • substr_compare — Binary safe comparison of two strings from an offset, up to length characters
  • substr_count — Count the number of substring occurrences
  • substr_replace — Replace text within a portion of a string
  • substr — Return part of a string
  • trim — Strip whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning and end of a string
  • ucfirst — Make a string’s first character uppercase
  • ucwords — Uppercase the first character of each word in a string
  • vfprintf — Write a formatted string to a stream
  • vprintf — Output a formatted string
  • vsprintf — Return a formatted string
  • wordwrap — Wraps a string to a given number of characters

Laravel Release Process

At Laracon 2013 in Washington D.C., Taylor announced the first official release cycle for the framework.

The way releases are set up is that a new version of Laravel is released every six months, one around June and another at the end of each year. Bug fixes are provided for six months and security fixes for one year.

By having an official release cycle, it allows us end users to plan around when we need to perform upgrades and also the dev team a way of knowing what is coming and when. Since this announcement, all new releases have followed this schedule.

With the release of Laravel 5.1, a new cycle was added to offer long-term support. It includes bug fixes for two years and security fixes for three.

This means 5.1 will be the only LTS version available until the two-year mark ends, June 2017. At that point, another LTS version will be announced. Here is an outline for the release schedule:

Proposed Release Schedule

5.1 LTS – Jun 9, 2015

Bug fixes until June 2017, and security fixes until June 2018.

Laravel 5.2 – Dec 21, 2015

General release of 5.2 which includes 6 months of bug fixes, 1 year of security.

Laravel 5.3 – Aug 23, 2016

6 months of bug fixes, 1 year of security.

Laravel 5.4 – January 24, 2017

6 months of bug fixes, 1 year of security. Here is a look at the new features of Laravel 5.4

Laravel 5.5 LTS – August 30, 2017

This is the current LTS release. At this point, Laravel 5.1 will no longer receive bug fixes but will continue getting security fixes until June 2018. Check out the what’s new in Laravel 5.5 series to see all the new features in this release.

Laravel 5.6 – February 7th, 2018

6 months of bug fixes, 1 year of security. what’s new in Laravel 5.6.

Laravel 5.7 – September 4th, 2018

6 months of bug fixes, 1 year of security. Check out the what’s new in Laravel 5.7series to see all the new features in this release.

History of Laravel Releases

VersionReleaseBug Fixes UntilSecurity Fixes Until
V1June 2011
V2September 2011
v3February 2012
v4May 2013
5.0Feb 4th, 2015Aug 4th, 2015Feb 4th, 2016
5.1 (LTS)Jun 9th, 2015Jun 9th, 2017Jun 9th, 2018
5.2Dec 21st, 2015Jun 21st, 2016Dec 21st, 2016
5.3Aug 23rd, 2016Feb 23rd, 2017Aug 23rd, 2017
5.4Jan 24th, 2017Jul 24th, 2017Jan 24th, 2018
5.5 (LTS)Aug 30th, 2017Aug 30th, 2019Aug 30th, 2020
5.6Feb 7th, 2018Aug 7th, 2018Feb 7th, 2019
5.7Sep 4, 2018Feb 4th, 2019Sep 4th, 2019

Unit Testing – Test Case Preparation Guidelines

Unit testing is a Level of Testing where smallest part of individual unit / component (called unit) is tested to determine if they are fit for use.

The unit test cases writing and execution is done by the developer (not the tester) to make sure that individual units are working as expected. The smallest part of individual components like functions, procedures, classes, interfaces etc.
If we take a example of functions, when we pass input parameters to functions then check if the function should return a expected values. The main intention of this activity is to check whether units are working as per design and handling error and exception more neatly. The both positive and negative conditions should handle properly.

The white box testing is used to test the unit testing. This is very first step in level of testing and started before doing integration testing.

Unit Testing Test Case Preparation Guidelines:

1. Unit Test Plan/Cases should be made a separate deliverable. It should not be merged with other artifacts. Try to document all the probable test scenarios which encompasses uncommon and alternative flows. Once a project moves into construction phase, the developers have a tendency to catch only the success situations or the situations which has been coded.

2. Construction and Unit testing need to be made distinct phases and the deliverable need to be scheduled accordingly.

3. If Construction and UT are scheduled as a single phase, Unit testing results need to be made as a separate deliverable – This would help in filtering out any mistakes in the business flows at a nascent stage instead of in the integration testing or system testing which is more expensive.

4. Make use of the count of test cases planned, executed, passed, and failed to apprehend the progress and replicate Unit testing if required.

5. Try to include on-the-fly test cases that are developed while executing a pre-defined set of test cases.

Unit Testing Test Cases Preparation Guidelines Checklist:

Input Data Validation:

This section encompasses a range of checks that may be adopted generally to the data which is entered to an application system.

  1. Mandatory Fields testing
  2. Unique Field Values testing
  3. Null value testing
  4. Field accepts allowable characters only
  5. Negative values testing
  6. Field is limited to the field length specifications
  7. Improbable Value testing
  8. Garbage Value testing
  9. Check for inter- Field dependencies
  10. Equivalence Class Partitioning and boundary condition testing
  11. Ensure error notification and correction processing is robust

Date Validation:

This constitutes of a set of conditions to the date fields

  1. Various Date Formats
  2. US or UK Style Date Format
  3. Positive testing – valid dates
  4. Negative testing- invalid Dates like
  • Month does not accept 00 and 13 as values
  • Day do not contain 00 and 32 as its values
  • 28, 29, 30 are validated correctly.
  1. Check for the impact of Weekends and Bank Holidays if applicable
  2. Link between Leap Years and 29th February

Time Validation:

This constitutes of a set of conditions to the time fields

  1. Various Time Formats like 12/24 hour format, AM/PM
  2. Positive testing- check for valid Times
  3. Negative testing- check for invalid Times
  4. Check for the impact of Weekends and business holidays

Postcode validation:

This constitutes of a set of conditions to the postcode fields

  1. Test for partial Postcode input and check for postcode format
  2. Testing for space/no space
  3. Check if there is option to enter address manually

System interfaces:

This constitutes of a set of conditions to the fields which are transferred between multiple application systems.

  1. Check if all fields/parameters on an interface are exercised properly
  2. All data fields need to work properly as per the validation List
  3. Security testing across automated Interfaces
  4. Check for the parent child relationships


This constitutes of a set of conditions which helps to verify the usability of an application system.

  1. Check if the Layout is consistent with the design criteria
  2. Check for the Fonts, Colors, Sizes, etc.
  3. Test for Branding Guidelines
  4. Check if the window caption for every application has the name of the application and the window name
  5. Check for alignment
  6. Check if the screen is resizable and minimizable
  7. Spelling check
  8. Testing for default values if necessary
  9. Mandatory fields need to be highlighted with as asterisk symbol


This constitutes of a set of conditions which helps to verify the security of an application system.

  1. Negative testing- Password is not visible
  2. Access testing- multiple levels
  3. Positive testing- Change Password
  4. Error messages should not reveal any system information
  5. Check if SSL is correctly deployed
  6. Check if Lockout rules is applied
  7. Check if password saved in clear or encrypted?
  8. Verify the application with valid UserId and invalid UserIds
  9. Verify the application with valid password and various invalid passwords
  10. Check for access to the application by directly entering valid URL(s). System should ask for login details.
  11. Ensure Browser(s) does not remember Passwords

Logging, audit and trails:

This constitutes of a set of conditions which helps to verify the Audit Trails, System Logs, etc. of an application system.

  1. Check if the logs are saved for the specified period
  2. Check if the logs contain personal data
  3. Check if Admin functions are logged
  4. Check if user Lockout events are logged

Business application logic:

This constitutes of a set of conditions which helps to verify the application logic and business processing of an application system.

  1. Check if options for all available Products are explored
  2. Check for all Upgrade and Downgrade Paths and Options
  3. Verify upgrades and downgrades have been applied to billing, network, self-care etc
  4. Behavior on Cease/Disconnect/Termination
  5. Behavior on Equipment Failure
  6. Check rounding on Calculated Amounts
  7. Ensure full range of test accounts used, types/status/conditions
  8. Check if currency symbol is displayed as required
  9. Verify that duplicate records are not present.
  10. Use large or very large amounts/numbers where arithmetic is involved to check overflow, both in displayed and actual data forms


This section encompasses a set of checks that helps to verify reporting functionality offered by the system.

  1. All fields are available
  2. Adequate space should be available for fields
  3. Enable Scrolling and Panning
  4. Page Numbering gives indication of Report Size (N of M) and should enables access to mid/end points in Report
  5. Reports are exported correctly to Excel/Word documents
  6. Reports can be printed properly and all data appears correctly
  7. Check if all the pages in the report are accessible


This section encompasses a set of checks that helps to verify environmental or equipment requirements for the AUT.

  1. Testing with all the browsers
  2. Testing by enabling and disenabling Java scripts


This section encompasses a set of checks that could be applied for verifying email capability

  1. Verify if confirmation message is provided when Email is sent
  2. Verify that the links provided in the emails function properly
  3. Verify that Reply to Address is correct
  4. Verify that Fonts, Size and alignment of texts in email are proper

Search criteria:

This section encompasses a set of checks on the Searching functionality of the application system.

  1. Verify that scroll bar is implemented
  2. Verify that alignment of the search results is proper
  3. Verify that valid results are displayed for any combination of search conditions.
  4. Verify that correct results are retrieved for AND/OR conditions
  5. Verify that results are displayed in alphabetical or specified order
  6. Verify that column headings are sortable


In this article you learned all about Unit Testing test case preparation guidelines and checklists. I hope this will definitely help our developer friends to write down the Unit test cases. These test cases are definitely help white box testers to test your application.

Your feedback is important to us, please let us know your feedback in comments below. If you like the article and then please share it. You can also share your personal experiences if you have done this before.

Setting up WordPress and managing your website

WordPress powers almost 27 percent of the entire internet

WordPress has two zones: the front-end and the back-end.

The front end is what your visitors will see when they come to your website. Many of the tasks performed on the back-end will be visible on the front end, such as theme customizations, plugin functionality enhancements, and content publication. Actions can also be performed by you and your visitors directly from the front-end of the website, including commenting and social sharing.There are 72 translations of WordPress

The back end, also known as the WordPress dashboard, allows you to fully manage your site’s content, community, functionality, and design. It’s accessible only by users who have an account on your site. To access your WordPress dashboard, you need to type yourwebsite.com/wp-admin in the address bar of your browser and login using your WordPress username and password.

The dashboard

The Dashboard is the center of website administration. It consists of three main parts left-side menu, top toolbar and middle section. The left-hand column of your WordPress dashboard is where you’ll find all of your admin options and where most of your creative effort will be focused.

The left-side menu items include the following:

There are more than 47,000 WordPress plugins. Akismet is still the #1 downloaded pluginA premium WordPress theme has the average price of $40

  • Home takes you to your dashboard.
  • Updates show you any themes or plugins that need to be updated because a new version has been released. If WordPress itself is updated, you’ll see a number in a red circle next to this menu item.
  • Media shows every photo, video, and file you’ve uploaded as part of a post or page. You can also upload files directly to the media section.
  • Pages are usually evergreen, static web pages. Examples include the “About Us” section on a company website or the “Services” page.
  • Comments are what visitors comment on in response to one of your posts or pages. If you have comments, a number inside a red circle will appear next to this menu item.
  • Appearance contains themes, design, and features related to the appearance of your site.
  • Plugins are extra mini programs that help increase the functionality of your site. You can use plugins to turn your website into a membership site, add social media sharing, eliminate comment spam or just to do something cool or fancy with your graphics.
  • Settings are used for just about anything. It’s the first place you want to go when setting up a new site.

Design your site and make it look great

Man painting

The design of your website is essential, and people will form an opinion about your business based on the look and feel of it. Visitors will make an instant decision (in 3 seconds or less) whether to stay on your site or move on. To make an impact, it’s important to have great design.

Depending on the type of the website and the way you choose to build it, you will have some options as far as selecting a design for your site. If you decide to use CMS or web builder, you will be dealing with the pre-made theme and templates. Key things to keep in mind about your website design are the following:

  • Use clean design
  • Make sure it’s mobile optimized
  • Fit your site’s niche and goals
  • One or two columns layout is the best option
  • Use unique design elements
  • Make it easy to navigate

If you are looking for customized options using some of the platforms mentioned above or creating a website from scratch, you can turn to professional web designer/developer.Design for differentiated sections and eye-catching transitions to help user navigate and reward them based on their engagement levels, interests or the site depth into which they explore

Write and prepare your content

Content is information that will be presented on your site. It’s important to create and maintain useful, unique, and clear content so your visitors can easily understand your message. Poorly written and badly presented material can frustrate and discourage visitors from staying on your website or coming back.

There are two questions you have to consider when creating content:Create custom visuals and iconography that speaks directly to brand story and personality. Avoid arbitrary media and iconography. Again, keep it relevant

  • Is the content relevant and exciting to your audience?
  • How should the content be presented to your target audience?

Today, search engines reward (by ranking them higher) websites that make an effort to create quality content to educate people in their niche. You will have to make sure your content is: unique, relevant, legit, and current.

Once you have an overview of your website plan/sitemap, you can drill down to the specifics of the content you need to create for a website launch. It will be important to create evergreen content (content that will not be changing much and will appear on the static pages) and also important to have fresh content appearing on your website on a regular basis.

Test before and after launch


Beta testing. Launching your website is an exciting process and people eager to get it live as soon as possible. With all the excitement, often people ignore the testing step. It’s critical you test your website before it goes live. The testing process can seem overwhelming, and you are not sure where to start. We are here to tell you that it’s not that complicated, you just have to check the following points carefully:

  • Content related materials (spelling, punctuation, etc.)
  • Design related elements (images, fonts, etc.)
  • Web development items ( live URLs, broken links, etc.)
  • Search engine optimization details ( title tags, meta data, etc.)
  • Network administrator areas (hosting, backup system, etc.)

Google Analytics
Even if you’re on a tight budget, you can use free tools like Google Analytics to get a lot of data on how your website is being used, including overlays of your pages to see what links people click on most as well as the ability to track conversion funnels

Post-launch. Once your website goes live, you need to have a strategy in place on what to do next and how to maintain your site. Here are some basic things to consider:

  • Prepare your site for promotion.
  • Prepare to measure website stats.
  • Find maintenance if and when needed.
  • Make sure you backup your site.
  • Collect visitor’s feedback.

How to Make a Website in 2019

The world’s first website was published on August 6, 1991 by British physicist Tim Berners-LeeAs of August 2018, there are 1.24 billion websitesin the world

Whether you’re considering building a brand new website or want to redo your current website, you’re faced with some basic, but important, decisions.

In this guide, we are going to help you with these decisions by showing your choices and explaining how specific options will fit your unique needs. We’ll cover everything from understanding what type of website you need and choosing a domain name, to the finishing touches that will help you launch your website successfully, no matter what your goals are.

Also, we’ll show you how to use specific tools or systems to create your site. As an example, we’ll explain how you can make a website step-by-step with one of the most popular content management system (CMS) WordPress.org.

The essential steps to launch a website:

  • Understand what type of site you need
  • Pick a domain name and hosting provider
  • Install and setup WordPress CMS
  • Design your site and make it look great
  • Write and prepare your content
  • Test before and after launch

We hope that you are excited at the prospect of having your website. Now, let’s look at what are the steps you need to take to get it right.

Understand what type of site you need

There are different types of websites. The type, or combination types, you choose, will depend on what you want to achieve with your site and the functionality you’ll need to accomplish this.

Following are the main types of websites:

Blog or website with a blog. A blog can be an extra feature for any website, or it can be a separate kind of site on its own. Blogs are usually arranged in chronological order, with the most recent entry at the top of the main page and older entries toward the bottom.

Business card site. For some small businesses, a simple one-page website with the name, description, contact info and maybe a logo may be all that’s needed. You can also include some product information, but the basic concept is a one-page website that represents your company or yourself.

Portfolio site. A portfolio site is similar to a business card website, except you’ll have a section on the web page where you showcase your work and give people options for contacting you. Photography studios commonly use this type of website, so do design firms and other creative endeavors.

Product brochure site. This kind of website is an extension of your company’s sales and marketing efforts. You’ll be able to include goods and services your business offers for visitors to browse through. This website may include some pricing guidelines but doesn’t enable customers to make purchases online.

E-commerce site. With an e-commerce site, you’ll be able to showcase your products or services and allow visitors to buy them online. At first, the setup process for an eCommerce site may seem daunting, but there are many simplified methods and tools on the internet today that will enable you to sell online.

Select the right tool to build a website

With so many options available today, it can be difficult to choose the best instruments for the job. Choosing the best platform upon which you build your site will be one of the most important decisions you make. This choice is critical because you’ll be tied to that platform for some time and it’s never easy (or possible) to move your website from one platform to another.

Website building solutions can be divided into two groups: self-hosted content management systems and hosted web builder platforms.

Pick a domain name and hosting provider

To create your new website with the recommended WordPress platform, you’ll need a domain name and web hosting provider.

Domain name

Once you’ve selected the right platform for your site, you need to start thinking of a domain name. This domain will be yourname.com, yourbusiness.com or something similar.

If you’re marketing yourself, you’ll want to use your first and last name. Think johnsmith.com. Even if you aren’t promoting yourself, it’s not a bad idea to get your name as a domain now, in case you want to use it in the future. If you are marketing your business, you will want to use your company name. Think “yourbusiness.com.”

Web hosting provider

After choosing a domain name, selecting reliable hosting services will be one of the most important decisions you make. To a large degree, the functionality and performance of your website will depend on your hosting provider. The host makes sure your site is available to potential readers 24/7, and it’s where your files are stored online.

The wrong web host can cause many problems with your website. Just imagine choosing a mobile company that has no reception. Your web host is a major piece of the puzzle to maintaining a successful internet site. Therefore, it’s crucial that you choose a reliable provider.

We highly recommend Bluehost, which powers over 2 million websites worldwide. And for our visitors only, they offer an exclusive deal that includes a FREE DOMAIN NAME and a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Bluehost web hosting company is recommended by WordPress.org as one “of the best and brightest of the hosting world”.


An Overview of Learners License in India

You must hold a valid Driving License to legally drive a vehicle on Indian roads. But first, you need to get a Learner’s License when you are learning to drive.

A Learner’s License is a document issued by your state Regional Transport Office (RTO). It acts as a provisional and restricted license. You must get a permanent Driving License once you’ve learnt how to drive a motor vehicle. To get a Learner’s License, one must be familiar with rules and regulations related to road safety.

In India, Learner’s License is issued to the candidate after passing a written or online test about road rules. After you get a Learner’s License, you will be allowed to practice driving on public roads provided you are accompanied by a person who holds a permanent Driving License. You must obtain a Learner’s License for the relevant class of vehicle before you can get a Driving License.

Types of Learner’s License in India

Driving License and Learner’s License in India are given based on the class of motor vehicle. The eligibility criteria changes depending upon the class of vehicle.

Here are some of the most common class of vehicles:

For Personal Use:

MC 50cc (Motorcycle 50cc) license class for Motorcycles with engine capacity of 50cc or less than 50cc
LMV–NT class license for Light Motor Vehicle used for non-transport purposes
FVG class license for Motorcycles of any engine capacity but with no gears, like Scooters and Mopeds
MC EX50CC class license for Motorcycles with a capacity of 50cc or more, Motorcycles with gear and Light Motor Vehicles (LMVs) including cars
MCWG or M/CYCL.WG class license for All types of Motorcycles including Motorcycle with gear

For Commercial Use:

HGMV class license for Heavy Goods Motor Vehicle
LMV–TR class license for Light Motor Vehicle used for commercial purposes
HPMV class license for All India driving permit for trucks and cars or open license/Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle
LMV–NT class license Light Motor Vehicle for non-transport purposes
MGV class license for Medium Goods Vehicle

Eligibility Criteria for Getting Learner’s License

Eligibility criteria for Learning License differs depending on the class of motor vehicle and the type of learner’s license sought 

  • The top 10 search engines according to the top 10 search engines

    Based upon the potentially specious assumption that searching for the word “search” on a search engine should return a list of links to other search engines, I determined what the top 10 search engines thought were the top 10 search engines. I started with Google and determined the rest of the most popular list as I went along based upon what sites came up most often.

    1. Google
    2. Yahoo!
    3. Search.com
    4. Altavista
    5. Excite
    6. Lycos
    7. AllTheWeb
    8. Metacrawler
    9. Dogpile
    10. Go.com

    1. Google
    2. Netscape
    3. AOL
    4. MSN
    5. Search.com
    6. Altavista
    7. [search.ch]
    8. Web Search
    9. Search Hippo
    10. search.nl

    1. Google
    2. Lycos
    3. Altavista
    4. Webcrawler
    5. HotBot
    6. Search.com
    7. Mamma
    8. AllTheWeb
    9. AOL
    10. Yahoo!

    1. Search.com
    2. AllTheWeb
    3. MSN
    4. [search.ch]
    5. Google
    6. AOL
    7. Northern Light
    8. Web Search
    9. Mamma
    10. Dogpile

    1. Altavista
    2. 37 Search Engines
    3. Search.com
    4. MSN
    5. 89.com
    6. METASpider
    7. BotBot
    8. [search.ch]
    9. sear.ch
    10. MegaWeb

    1. Search.com
    2. AllTheWeb
    3. MSN
    4. [search.ch]
    5. Google
    6. AOL
    7. Northern Light
    8. search.nl
    9. Web Search
    10. Altavista

    1. MSN
    2. AskJeeves
    3. HotBot
    4. Yahoo!
    5. Search.com
    6. LookSmart
    7. Webcrawler
    8. Lycos
    9. Excite
    10. AOL

    1. AOL
    2. Search.com
    3. Yahoo!
    4. Altavista
    5. Google
    6. Excite
    7. AllTheWeb
    8. MSN
    9. Dogpile
    10. Webcrawler

    1. Lycos
    2. Search.com
    3. Google
    4. Yahoo!
    5. iWon
    6. Webcrawler
    7. Altavista
    8. Excite
    9. AllTheWeb
    10. Northern Light

    1. Lycos
    2. Search.com
    3. Google
    4. Yahoo!
    5. iWon
    6. Webcrawler
    7. Excite
    8. AllTheWeb
    9. Northern Light
    10. HotBot

    I was surprised at the variety of the results returned by the 10 sites (with the exception of Excite and Webcrawler, whose results are virtually identical). I was under the impression that the search sites had settled on two or three sets of data that were parcelled out by the likes of Inktomi.