What is Selenium?

Selenium automates browsers. That’s it! What you do with that power is entirely up to you. Primarily, it is for automating web applications for testing purposes, but is certainly not limited to just that. Boring web-based administration tasks can (and should!) be automated as well.

Selenium has the support of some of the largest browser vendors who have taken (or are taking) steps to make Selenium a native part of their browser. It is also the core technology in countless other browser automation tools, APIs and frameworks.

Which part of Selenium is appropriate for me?

Selenium WebDriver
If you want tocreate robust, browser-based regression automation suites and testsscale and distribute scripts across many environments
Then you want to use Selenium WebDriver; a collection of language specific bindings to drive a browser — the way it is meant to be driven.Selenium WebDriver is the successor of Selenium Remote Control which has been officially deprecated. The Selenium Server (used by both WebDriver and Remote Control) now also includes built-in grid capabilities.
Selenium IDE
If you want tocreate quick bug reproduction scriptscreate scripts to aid in automation-aided exploratory testing
Then you want to use Selenium IDE; a Chrome and Firefox add-on that will do simple record-and-playback of interactions with the browser.
  • Selenium-Level Sponsors

    Sauce Labs
    New Relic Synthetics

    __autoload() is deprecated, use spl_autoload_register() instead


    function __autoload($class) {
        if (file_exists(APPPATH."core/".$class.'.php')) {


    spl_autoload_register(function($class) {
       if (file_exists(APPPATH."core/".$class.'.php')) {

    The difference between DV and OV certificates

    We know that the SSL-certificates can be divided into three types: DV, OV and EV. In this article, we will focus on the first two types of certificates, DV and OV. We will explain how they differ and when you should choose DV over OV.

    DV-certificates (Domain Validation). This is the most basic level of SSL validation. The Certification Authority (CA) only ensure that you are the owner of a specific domain using the information contained in the WHOIS. Naturally, this type of certificate enables secure data encryption on your site, but it does not verify that you are the owner of a legitimate business. It is legitimate, and, most importantly, it is a very quick solution to protect your site using HTTPS. Customers seeing the padlock in your browser will have more trust in your site than before, because the padlock is a recognised sign of legitimacy.

    Example of a DV certificate:

    A DV certificate is fine where security is not a concern: however, attackers can also use DV-certificates on phishing sites. Unsuspecting users see the trusted pad lock and enter their personal data on the site which can then fall into the hands of fraudsters. The fact that the data channel is secured does not necessarily mean that the data will go to the right people. A user needs to be sure that the site belongs to a legitimate company if they are to make a purchase or input important information. 

    For this reason, if security is a necessity for your site, we recommend an OV-certificate.

    OV-certificates (Organisation Validation) are required for companies and organisations where users must enter sensitive information (credit card numbers, contact information, etc.).In particular, they are useful for e-commerce sites or online sales. An OV-certificate authenticates the owner of the site and requires legitimate business information for that company. The validation process for these certificates is longer and more detailed. The Certification Authority not only verifies the fact that you own the domain, but also the fact that you are the owner of the company. The company must be in a business registry database and in a trusted online directory (for example, dnb.com). Fraudsters cannot get an OV certificate because their organisation cannot be validated. The main advantage of getting an OV-certificate is that your company will be listed on the certificate.

    Example of an OV-certificate:

    • You need to protect sensitive user data
    • You want to display your company name on a certificate (provides more trust amongst users)
    • You are planning to expand the business and grow it to a new level
    • You want people to know that the site is a legitimate organisation, and not a phishing site

    You should think about switching from a DV-certificate to an OV-certificate, if:

    If you want to switch from a DV-certificate to an OV-certificate, be sure to contact our experts at LeaderTelecom. Our knowledge, experience and streamlined process for dealing with the CAs will make issuing an OV-certificate easy and convenient.

    How can I redirect and rewrite my URLs with an .htaccess file?

    What to change in the examples below?

    The examples below can be entered into your .htaccess file exactly as shown. Just make sure to adjust the actual path to the file so the .htaccess file knows where it’s located. Also, if you see the domain ‘example.com’, change this to your own domain name.

    Redirecting a URL
    Using Redirect in an .htaccess file enables you to redirect users from an old page to a new page without having to keep the old page. For example, if you use index.html as your index file and then later rename index.html to home.html, you could set up a redirect to send users from index.html to home.html. For example:
    Redirect to a local site file
    Redirect /path/to/old/file/old.html /path/to/new/file/new.html
    Redirect to an external site file
    Redirect /path/to/old/file/old.html http://www.example.com/new/file/new.html
    The first path
    The first path to the old file must be a local UNIX path, NOT the full path. So, if the .htaccess file is in the directory /example.com, you would not include /home/exampleuser/example.com in the local UNIX path. The first / represents the example.com directory. If the old file was in that directory, you would follow the / with the old file name.
    The second path
    The second path to the new file can be a local UNIX path, but can also be a full URL to link to a page on a different server or the same server.
    Examples of redirects
    Redirect from an index.html file to a different directory
    Redirect /index.html /new/
    Redirect from index.html to default.html
    Redirect /index.html /default.html
    Redirect a local /private directory to another site's private directory
    Redirect /private/ http://www.example.com/private/
    Redirect /img/logo.gif http://www.example.com/images/logo.gif
    Using Regular Expressions
    If you want to use a Regular Expression to redirect something, use the RedirectMatch directive:
    RedirectMatch "^/oldfile\.html/?$" "http://example.com/newfile.php"
    Redirecting error messages
    You can also redirect 404 errors. Instead of throwing a 404 page, this redirects to the homepage of the website.
    ErrorDocument 404 http://example.com/
    Redirecting an old directory to new directory
    This redirects files in a old directory (/blog/archives) to a new directory (/archives). The file must exist in the new directory to function.
    RewriteRule ^blog/archives/(.*)$ /newarchives/$1 [R=301,NC,L]
    Redirect non-existing pages to index.php
    If a visitor attempts to access a page that doesn't exist, they are presented with a 404 error. You can instead redirect any request to a non-existing page to your index.php file (or any index file) by adding the following code in your .htaccess:
    Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch 
    RewriteEngine On 
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f 
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
    If your index page isn't index.php, just change the last line to your actual index file. Then the visitor is redirected back to your home page.
    Automatically loading a subdirectory
    This example redirects the ROOT domain's URL to any subdirectory. In this example, it automatically loads example.com/subdir1:
    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteRule ^$ /subdir1/ [L]
    Forcing www in the URL
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^example.com
    RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
    Removing www in the URL
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.example.com
    RewriteRule (.*) http://example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
    Rewriting a URL
    This example rewrites a URL to another URL. This rewrites example.com/1.html to example.com/abc.php?id=1
    Options +FollowSymLinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteRule ^([0-9]+).html /abc.php?id=$1 [QSA,L]
    The following explains the rules above:
    allows any digit, and only any digit, 1 or more times.
    allows any lowercase letter, plus “-” for word separation, 0 or more times. If you want it to support uppercase too, use “([a-zA-Z-]*). For example:
    RewriteRule ^place/([a-zA-Z-]*).html /place/abc.php?id=$1 [QSA,L]
    appends this to your internal scripting query string, and makes it the Last rewrite rule executed.
    After using this method, you can retrieve the webpage with either address type. This is handy for retro-fitting a website that was not designed with mod_rewrite in mind. This is good because it does not destroy any bookmarks saved on users computers.
    View the following link for more information and examples about mod-rewrite:
    mod-rewrite cheat sheet
    Rewriting non-existing links to index.php
    The following redirects all links to files or folders that do not exist to index.php. However, if the file or directory does exist, it loads normally:
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteRule . /index.php [L]

    Creative Ways to Treat Your Mom Right on Mother’s Day

    The first special woman in almost everyone’s life is their mother, so this Mother’s Day, show how much you appreciate all she has done for you. The most important thing you can do is to treat her with the kindness and courtesy she deserves.

    After that, whatever she gets is gravy. And there is nothing wrong with making this Mother’s Day the best she’s ever had.

    Making Mom Happy

    Since every mother is different, you’ll need to determine what makes her happy. Think about those times when you caught her smiling. Use your memories to bring another smile to her face.

    Does she enjoy quality time with you more than gifts? Does she prefer handmade gives over something from the store? Come up with a specific treat that shows how much you care about her. 

    Focus the day on your mother by doing one or more of these things:

    • Put together a collage of photos from the past. Add a current selfie with your mom to the collage.
    • Bring some of her favorite plants and flowers and help her with her gardening.
    • Cook a meal together.
    • Have an afternoon board game marathon.
    • Put together a list of things you learned from her over the years. 
    • Give her the gift of your time and let her decide what to do.

    Mother’s Day Gift Ideas

    Most of us like to present our moms with a gift they’ll cherish and enjoy. This can be something as simple as a scarf or as elaborate as a trip. Whatever you choose to give her doesn’t have to be expensive as long as you put thought into it and give her something you know she’ll like.

    Here are some fun gift ideas you might want to consider for your mother:

    • Give her an embroidered scarf with her name monogrammed. If you want to win a few extra points, have your birthday (and year) placed someplace discreet, like on the underside of a corner.
    • Have a planner or journal embossed with something personal. If your mother likes to document special events and occasions, she’ll love having a something nice to use. Include a matching pen to make it even more special.
    • Give her a locket with a photo. If your mother has a locket with a photo of her children tucked away inside, she’ll cherish this forever. Find an image with you and all of your siblings to make it even more special.
    • Have a mug or tumbler personalized with something meaningful. Moms who enjoy coffee, tea, or water will appreciate a mug or tumbler with her name on it. You can add a saying, such as “#1 Mom” or “World’s Best Mother.” If she’s a grandmother, maybe you can include embossed, engraved, or printed images of the grandkids and a cute saying, like “Grandma’s Li’l Loves” or “Nana’s Crew.”
    • Give her a cruise or weekend getaway. If you have the financial means, maybe your mother would enjoy getting away for a few days. It would be nice if you and the rest of the family could go with her, but even if you can’t, she’ll appreciate your thoughtfulness. Make sure you cover all expenses and gratuities so she won’t have any unexpected expenses.

    Special Mother’s Day Events

    Whether you get her a gift or not, it’s always nice to celebrate the entire day with her in mind. Plan your whole day around activities you know she’ll enjoy. This is the least you can do for someone who brought you into the world and took care of all your needs as you grew into the adult you are.

    Here are some special things you can do for your mom on Mother’s Day:

    • Cook Mom a special meal. If you don’t already know, find out what her favorite special meal is and make it for her. You might have to watch a few YouTube videos and practice a couple of times, but she’s worth it.
    • Make a slide show or video. Get together with your siblings (if you have any) and create a show that will make her laugh, cry, and want to hug the whole bunch of you. Do your best to keep it positive so she’ll enjoy her celebration.
    • Book a spa day. Many moms spend quite a bit of time time taking care of everyone else, and they tend to neglect themselves. If this sounds like your mother, make an appointment for her to be pampered at your local day spa. She’ll love being pampered, having her hair done, getting a massage, and having a pedicure. Don’t forget to include a tip when you pay for it.
    • Treat her to a weekend adventure. Whether she loves hiking and bicycling, or she’s more of a bed-and-breakfast type, plan on spending the weekend doing what she loves. Make it all about her.

    Coupon Book of Mother’s Day Treats

    If you want to give your mother something special that will last all year, consider giving her a coupon book with as many things as you’re willing to do. You can put it in alphabetical or chronological order.

    Here are some coupon book ideas:

    • Bring her breakfast in bed. Mom can cash in on this when she’s had a rough week and needs a little extra rest.
    • Take her shopping and out to lunch. If your mother enjoys nothing more than a day at the mall and lunch at her favorite eatery, this will delight her and give her something to look forward to.
    • Enjoy a TV show marathon with her. Most TV-watching moms will love having an all-day marathon with their kids. Include popcorn and a favorite drink.
    • Provide housecleaning. Your mom has spent enough time pushing a vacuum and mopping up your messes, so show her some love by cleaning her house. Or if you have more money than time, you can give her a gift card to a maid service.
    • Offer a chauffeur service. Offer to drive your mother (round trip, of course) anywhere she wants to go for a day.
    • Give her a car wash. Having a clean car is a joy, but it’s not everyone’s idea of a good time. Include a coupon offer to wash and detail your mother’s car.

    All About Mom

    Whatever you choose to do for your mom on Mother’s Day will be appreciated. She’ll love the fact that you thought about her and did something to make her day extra special. One thing that will make any of the gifts and activities even more special is to include a thank you note, letting her know how you feel about all she’s done through the years. 

    1950 as Voter Helpline across all Districts of India

    1950 as a universal number across India

    1. Each District will have Voter Helpline number 1950 and the only universal number of Elections Commission of India will be 1950
    2. When a citizen calls 1950 his call will land up in the district from where is he calling
    3. He will be greeted in the language of the District. (If he so desires he can call up any District across India by prefixing 1950 with the STD code)

    Standard Operating Procedure for all Districts

    1. All-District Contact centre has uniform Standard Operating Procedure, have a similar FAQ, access to NVSP and ERONET. Thus every citizen will get the same answer from wherever he is calling from.
    2. Any Districts upon receiving call will punch every call details on the National Grievance Service Portal. Thus every caller details, nature of calls and resolution status is viewable to every official in the ECI from DEO, CEO and ECI in a single unified interface.

    Toll-Free in every State / UT

    1. CEO Office will have State Contact Centre with a toll-free number whose primary job is to monitor 1950, take escalated calls, calls pertaining to CEO office and work as a control room during election times.  If required, the State HQ 1950 IVRS be configured for providing the citizen with a choice for District Contact Centre of HQ or the State Contact Centre.

    Latest Version of Ionic Provides Universal Design System for Enterprises

    Ionic Framework 4.0, rebuilt using open web standards, brings universal compatibility across platforms, devices, and developer frameworks—helping enterprises deliver consistent brand experiences at scale

    MADISON, Wis., Jan. 23, 2019 GLOBE NEWSWIRE — Ionic, the most widely used platform for building mobile and desktop apps using web technology, has launched version 4.0 of the open source Ionic Framework. The highly-anticipated release provides a complete cross-platform UI library built on Web Components, compatible with any front-end framework. Through the use of open web standards, Ionic 4.0 helps enterprises address the growing need to adopt design systems: A centralized library of components that can be shared across teams and projects to simplify design and development while ensuring consistent brand experiences, at scale.

    More than five million developers worldwide use Ionic Framework to tackle development of consumer-facing and internal enterprise applications—using one shared codebase across platforms. This level of efficiency is especially critical for companies today given the increasing demand from consumers to build connected digital experiences. Previous versions of Ionic Framework were based on Angular components and only worked with the Angular front-end framework. With the 4.0 release, Ionic has rebuilt its entire UI library using Web Components, a set of standardized APIs that make it possible to build fast, feature-rich apps that are natively supported in any modern browser on all major platforms, and are compatible with any front-end framework.

    Ionic 4.0’s foundation in Web Components makes it possible for developers to build for any platform or device, no matter the tooling or front-end technologies involved. The benefits of this for individuals and enterprises, alike, include:

    1. A customizable component library that works across teams and projects: Of all cross-platform approaches, only Ionic 4.0 provides UI components that are truly customizable, reusable, and shareable across all types of applications, including iOS, Android, Desktop (Electron), and the Web (Progressive Web Apps, etc.).
    2. Faster load times and smaller sizes: The shift to Web Components means that apps built with Ionic will load significantly faster and work better in low-bandwidth environments. On top of that, the 4.0 version adds smart defaults to improve load times. Put together, these improvements have helped Ionic achieve a 100/100 in Google’s Lighthouse score for application speed and performance.
    3. Technical agility to close the talent gap: Due to the flexibility of open web standards, Ionic now give developers and teams the freedom to build with the current and emerging tools they love, including Angular, React, and Vue; thus insulating enterprises from “framework churn” and making it easier to hire and retain developer talent.

    “When we look at what’s happening in the world of front-end development, we see two major industry shifts,” said Max Lynch, co-founder and CEO of Ionic. “First, there’s a recognition that the proliferation of proprietary components has slowed down development and created design inconsistencies that hurt users and brands alike. More and more enterprises are recognizing the need to adopt a design system: a single design spec, or library of reusable components, that can be shared across a team or company. Second, with the constantly evolving development ecosystem, we recognized the need to make Ionic compatible with whatever framework developers wanted to use—now and in the future. Rebuilding our Framework on Web Components was a way to address both of these challenges and future-proof our technology in a truly unique way.”

    Along with the Framework, Ionic offers a powerful set of tools and services to help enterprise teams address the need for digital experiences, from Studio, its localized development environment, to Appflow, a mobile DevOps solution, and Enterprise Engine, a fully-supported version of the Ionic development ecosystem.

    Ionic Framework 4.0 is now available to use with Google’s Angular web application framework, including support for Angular tooling, such as the Angular CLI and Router. Versions of Ionic with Vue and React are currently in alpha.

    About Ionic

    Ionic is an open source UI toolkit and developer platform that makes it simple to build, test, and deploy stunning, high-performance apps for any platform or device—all using a single codebase. Since its inception in 2013, Ionic Framework has become the #1 adopted cross-platform hybrid development framework in the world, serving a vibrant community of more than 5 million developers in over 200 countries. Ionic’s open source Framework is best known for its developer-friendly tools and services, which have helped build and power notable cross-platform apps for consumer brands like Sworkit, Shipt, and MarketWatch as well as mission-critical apps for companies like NASA and Nationwide. For more information about Ionic and its suite of tools, visit ionicframework.com.

    how to run node js using domain

    You dont assign a domain to a node.js server, instead you load your app onto a machine which has an ip adress, which in your case is You then need to make sure your app is listening on the correct port, which on most servers is 80

    using express it’s as simple as

    var app = express()
      , server = require('http').createServer(app)
      , io = io.listen(server);
    app.get('/', function(req, res) {

    now getting a domain name to point to this ip adress is an entirely separate matter. You need to make your name server point to the ip. Your name server will usually be the company you bought the domain name through, for instance GoDaddy is a Domain Name Server (DNS). So if you had a domain name with them, you would go on their site under DNS settings and change the ip adress. Your domain name will then point to your ip adress and should render your node.js app.

    How to Install the Ionic

    Install Ionic

    npm install -g ionic
    First, install Node.js. Then, install the latest Ionic command-line tools in your terminal. Follow the Android and iOS platform guides to install required tools for development.

    Start an app

    ionic start myApp tabs
    Create an Ionic App using one of our ready-made app templates, or a blank one to start fresh. Check out the Market for more designs.
    For v1 projects, use the --type ionic1 flag.
    1. $ ionic start myApp blank
    2. $ ionic start myApp tabs
    3. $ ionic start myApp sidemenu

    Run your app

    cd myApp ionic serve
    Much of your app can be built right in the browser with ionic serve. We recommend starting with this workflow.
    When you're ready to deploy your app to a real device, check out our Deploying guide.

    what is amazon elastic compute cloud

    What Is Amazon EC2?

    Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) provides scalable computing capacity in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. Using Amazon EC2 eliminates your need to invest in hardware up front, so you can develop and deploy applications faster. You can use Amazon EC2 to launch as many or as few virtual servers as you need, configure security and networking, and manage storage. Amazon EC2 enables you to scale up or down to handle changes in requirements or spikes in popularity, reducing your need to forecast traffic.

    Features of Amazon EC2

    Amazon EC2 provides the following features:

    • Virtual computing environments, known as instances
    • Preconfigured templates for your instances, known as Amazon Machine Images (AMIs), that package the bits you need for your server (including the operating system and additional software)
    • Various configurations of CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity for your instances, known as instance types
    • Secure login information for your instances using key pairs (AWS stores the public key, and you store the private key in a secure place)
    • Storage volumes for temporary data that’s deleted when you stop or terminate your instance, known as instance store volumes
    • Persistent storage volumes for your data using Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), known as Amazon EBS volumes
    • Multiple physical locations for your resources, such as instances and Amazon EBS volumes, known as Regions and Availability Zones
    • A firewall that enables you to specify the protocols, ports, and source IP ranges that can reach your instances using security groups
    • Static IPv4 addresses for dynamic cloud computing, known as Elastic IP addresses
    • Metadata, known as tags, that you can create and assign to your Amazon EC2 resources
    • Virtual networks you can create that are logically isolated from the rest of the AWS cloud, and that you can optionally connect to your own network, known as virtual private clouds(VPCs)