IRCTC Recruitment 2019: Fresh Vacancy Announced; Check Walk-In Dates

The Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) has invited applications from interested and eligible candidates for the positions of Supervisor (Hospitality).

Candidates having full time B. Sc. in Hospitality and Hotel Administration from a recognized university can appear for the interview.

Those having the required eligibility criteria mentioned above can walk-in for an interview for the positions from August 5 to August 29, 2019, the notification read.

IRCTC Recruitment 2019 Vacancy Detail

Name of Post: Supervisor (Hospitality)

No of Posts: 92

Age Limit

The upper age limit for candidates to appear for the IRCTC recruitment is 30 years. Age relaxation is there for candidates. Check it by clicking the link given below.

Selection Process

Selection of the candidates will be based on their performance in the personal interview followed by document verification and other formalities, if any.

Walk-in Interview Details

Click HERE, for more details related to the IRCTC Recruitment 2019 vacancy.

Source:- odishatv

100+ World Top Rivers and Lakes Lists

The world top 100 rivers and lakes name. Important top 100 list of rivers and lakes. Read and learn all of these GK and improve your GK skills. Get start here.

Toledo (USA)ErifLAKE
Buffalo (USA)OntarioLAKE
Asuncion (Paraguay)ParaguayRIVER
Belem (Brazil)AmazonRIVER
Cairo (Egypt)NileRIVER
Colombo (Sri Lanka)KelaniRIVER
Kabul (Afghanistan)KabulRIVER
Bucharest (Romania)DimbovitaRIVER
Cognac (France)CharenteRIVER
Galafi (Romania)DanubeRIVER
Galafi (Romania)SiretRIVER
Cambridge (U.K.)CamRIVER
Oxford (U.K.)ThamesRIVER
Panaji (Goa, India)MandoviRIVER
Alexandria (Egypt)NileRIVER
Khartoum (Sudan)Blue NileRIVER
Khartoum (Sudan)White NileRIVER
Omudurma (Sudan)NileRIVER
Kisume (Kenya)VictoriaLAKE
Kampala (Upanda)VictoriaLAKE
Jinja (Upganda)NileRIVER
Jinja (Upganda)VictoriaLAKE
Lokoja (Nigeria)NigerRIVER
Lokoja (Nigeria)BenueRIVER
Vancouver (Canada)FraserRIVER
Qyuebec (Canada)St. LawrenceRIVER
Hamiliton (Canada)OntarioLAKE
Arvida (Canada)SaguenayRIVER
Sarnia (Canada)HuronLAKE
Sudbury (Canada)HuronLAKE
Portland (USA)ColumbiaRIVER
Cleveland (USA)ErifLAKE
Gary (USA)MichiganLAKE
Milwaukee (USA)MichiganLAKE
Philadelphia (USA)DelawareRIVER
New York City (USA)HudsonRIVER
Baton Rouge (USA)MississippiRIVER
Port Harcourt (Nigeria)NigerRIVER
BrazzavilieZaire (Congo)RIVER
Kiruna (Sweden)TorneRIVER
Lisbon (Portugal)DouroRIVER
Paris (France)SeineRIVER
Bordeaux (France)GarroneRIVER
Lyons (France)SaoneRIVER
Lyons (France)RhoneRIVER
Le Havre (France)SeineRIVER
Rouen (France)SeineRIVER
Rome (Italy)TiberRIVER
Antwerp (Belgium)ScheldtRIVER
London (Britain)ThamesRIVER
New Castle (U.K.)TyneRIVER
Glasgow (U.K.)ClydeRIVER
Moscow (Russia)MoskvaRIVER
Petrozavosk (Russia)OnegaLAKE
Stalingrad (Russia)VolgaRIVER
Krasnoyark (Russia)YeniseyRIVER
Bratsk (Russia)AngaraRIVER
Irkutsk (Russia)BaikalLAKE
Nickopol (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Zaragoza (Spain)EbroRIVER
Nantes (France)LoireRIVER
Saratov (Russia)VolgaRIVER
Rostov (Russia)DonRIVER
Kiev (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Vienna (Austria)DanubeRIVER
Dusseldorf (Germany)RhineRIVER
Cologne (Germany)RhineRIVER
Washington (USA)PotomacRIVER
Perth (Australia)SwanRIVER
Freemantle (Australia)SwanRIVER
Sydney (Australia)DarlingRIVER
Nanking (China)Yangtze KiangRIVER
Hongkong (China)CantonRIVER
Macao (China)PearlRIVER
Vientiane (Laos)MekongRIVER
Vatican CityTiberRIVER
Berlin (Germany)SpreeRIVER
Frankfurt (Germany)RhineRIVER
Frankfurt (Germany)MainRIVER
Leipzig (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Dresden (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Bingen (Germany)RhineRIVER
Hamburg (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Bremen (Germany)WeserRIVER
Krakow (Poland)VistulaRIVER
Mandalay (Myanmar)IrrawaddyRIVER
Chauk (Myanmar)IrrawaddyRIVER
Bangkok (Thailand)Chao PrayaRIVER
Baghdad (Iraq)TigrisRIVER
Lahore (Pakistan)RaviRIVER
Kathmandu (Nepal)BaghmatiRIVER
Kathmandu (Nepal)VishnumaRIVER

gstr 9c explanation

GSTR 9C is the GST reconciliation Statement for a particular financial year. Taxpayers have to get it certified by CAs before filing. The due date for filing GSTR-9C is on or before 31st December.

GSTR 9C is used for Normal GST Audit / Certification by a Chartered Accountant or a Cost Accountant. It means every registered taxpayer whose aggregate turnover during a financial year exceeds 2 crore rupees has to get their statement audited. Also, they have to furnish a copy of audited annual accounts and a duly certified reconciliation statement in FORM GSTR 9C.

What is GSTR-9C?

GSTR-9C is a statement of reconciliation between:

  • GSTR 9 (Annual returns) filed for an FY, and
  • Figures as per Audited Annual Financial statements of the taxpayer.

GSTR-9C is to be certified by the CA. It is similar to the tax audit report furnished under the Income tax act.

It will consist of gross and taxable turnover as per the Books reconciled with the respective figures as per the consolidation of all the GST returns for an FY. Hence, any differences arising from this reconciliation will be reported along with the reasons for the same.

The certification is separate for different GSTINs of the same company. So, for one PAN there can be many reports of GSTR 9C.

Who will prepare & submit GSTR 9C?

A Cost Accountant or a Chartered Accountant has to prepare and certify GSTR 9C. It has to be submitted on the GST portal along with:

  • the GST Annual Returns(GSTR-9) and
  • the Audited Financial Statements

You can also file through the facilitation center.

This statement is applicable to all those taxpayers who must get their Annual Accounts audited under the GST laws.

What is the due date for GSTR 9C?

The due date for submitting the GSTR 9C has the same deadline as of submitting GSTR 9. Hence, you have to file GSTR 9C on or before 31st Dec of the year subsequent to the relevant FY under audit. For example, for the FY 2017-18, the due date for filing GSTR 9C will be 31st Dec 2018.

What’s the importance of GSTR 9C?

A Chartered accountant or cost accountant will prepare this GST Reconciliation statement. The CA has to report any differences between the details in GST returns and the audit.

Also, this statement acts as a base for the GST authorities to verify the correctness of the GST returns filed by the taxpayers. This is because the CA has to certify any additional liability arising out of the reconciliation exercise and GST audit in GSTR 9C.

What are the contents of the GSTR 9C?

GSTR-9C consists of two main parts:

  • Part-A: Reconciliation Statement
  • Part-B: Certification

Part-A: Reconciliation Statement

The figures in the audited financial statements are at PAN level. Hence, the turnover, Tax paid and ITC earned on a particular GSTIN must be taken out from the audited accounts of the organisation as a whole.

The Reconciliation Statement consists of five parts as follows:


Basic details -> Consists of FY, GSTIN, Legal Name, and Trade Name. The taxpayer must also mention if they are subject to audit under any other law.


Reconciliation of turnover declared in the Audited Annual Financial Statement with turnover declared in Annual Return (GSTR 9) -> the process consists of reporting the gross and taxable turnover declared in the Annual return with the Audited Financial Statements. As Audited Financial statement is at a PAN level, this might require the break-up of the audited financial statement at GSTIN level for reporting in GSTR 9C.


Reconciliation of tax paid -> This section requires GST rate-wise reporting of the tax liability that arose in FY as per the accounts and paid as reported in the GSTR 9 respectively with the differences thereof. Also, it requires the taxpayers to state the additional liability due to un-reconciled differences noticed upon reconciliation.


Reconciliation of Input Tax Credit (ITC) -> this consists the reconciliation of input tax credit availed and utilized by taxpayers as reported in GSTR 9 and as reported in the Audited Financial Statement. Also, it needs a reporting of expenses booked as per the audited accounts, with a breakup of eligible and ineligible ITC. And the reconciliation of the eligible ITC with that amount claimed as per GSTR 9. This declaration will be after considering the reversals of ITC claimed, if any.


Auditor’s recommendation on additional Liability due to non-reconciliation -> Here, the Auditor must report any tax liability identified through the reconciliation process and GST audit, pending for payment by the taxpayer.

This can be non-reconciliation of turnover or ITC on account of:

  • Amount paid for supplies in case not included in the Annual Returns(GSTR 9)
  • Erroneous Refund to be paid back
  • Other Outstanding demands to be settled

Part-B: Certification

The GSTR 9C can be certified by the same CA who conducted the GST audit.  Also, it can be certified by any other CA who did not conduct the GST Audit for that particular GSTIN.

The difference between both is that in case the CA certifying the GSTR 9C did not conduct the GST audit, he must have based an opinion on the Books of Accounts audited by another CA in the reconciliation statement. The format for certification report will vary depending on who the certifier is.

And with that, we end this post of GSTR 9C. If you have any questions, drop them in the comment section below.

oops in php interview questions

1) What is OOPS?

OOPS is abbreviated as Object Oriented Programming system in which programs are considered as a collection of objects. Each object is nothing but an instance of a class.

2) Write basic concepts of OOPS?

Following are the concepts of OOPS:

  1. Abstraction
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Inheritance
  4. Polymorphism

3) What is a class?

A class is simply a representation of a type of object. It is the blueprint/plan/template that describes the details of an object.

4) What is an Object?

An object is an instance of a class. It has its own state, behavior, and identity.

5) What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is an attribute of an object, and it contains all data which is hidden. That hidden data can be restricted to the members of that class.

Levels are Public, Protected, Private, Internal, and Protected Internal.

6) What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is nothing but assigning behavior or value in a subclass to something that was already declared in the main class. Simply, polymorphism takes more than one form.

7) What is Inheritance?

Inheritance is a concept where one class shares the structure and behavior defined in another class. If Inheritance applied to one class is called Single Inheritance, and if it depends on multiple classes, then it is called multiple Inheritance.

8) What are manipulators?

Manipulators are the functions which can be used in conjunction with the insertion (<<) and extraction (>>) operators on an object. Examples are endl and setw.

9) Explain the term constructor

A constructor is a method used to initialize the state of an object, and it gets invoked at the time of object creation. Rules for constructor are:

  • Constructor Name should be the same as a class name.
  • A constructor must have no return type.

10) Define Destructor?

A destructor is a method which is automatically called when the object is made of scope or destroyed. Destructor name is also same as class name but with the tilde symbol before the name.

11) What is an Inline function?

An inline function is a technique used by the compilers and instructs to insert complete body of the function wherever that function is used in the program source code.

12) What is a virtual function?

A virtual function is a member function of a class, and its functionality can be overridden in its derived class. This function can be implemented by using a keyword called virtual, and it can be given during function declaration.

A virtual function can be declared using a token(virtual) in C++. It can be achieved in C/Python Language by using function pointers or pointers to function.

13) What is a friend function?

A friend function is a friend of a class that is allowed to access to Public, private, or protected data in that same class. If the function is defined outside the class cannot access such information.

A friend can be declared anywhere in the class declaration, and it cannot be affected by access control keywords like private, public, or protected.

14) What is function overloading?

Function overloading is a regular function, but it can perform different tasks. It allows the creation of several methods with the same name which differ from each other by the type of input and output of the function.


void add(int& a, int& b);
void add(double& a, double& b);
void add(struct bob& a, struct bob& b);

15) What is operator overloading?

Operator overloading is a function where different operators are applied and depends on the arguments. Operator,-,* can be used to pass through the function, and it has its own precedence to execute

16) What is an abstract class?

An abstract class is a class which cannot be instantiated. Creation of an object is not possible with an abstract class, but it can be inherited. An abstract class can contain only an Abstract method. Java allows only abstract method in abstract class while other languages allow non-abstract method as well.

17) What is a ternary operator?

The ternary operator is said to be an operator which takes three arguments. Arguments and results are of different data types, and it depends on the function. The ternary operator is also called a conditional operator.

18) What is the use of finalize method?

Finalize method helps to perform cleanup operations on the resources which are not currently used. Finalize method is protected, and it is accessible only through this class or by a derived class.

19) What are the different types of arguments?

A parameter is a variable used during the declaration of the function or subroutine, and arguments are passed to the function body, and it should match with the parameter defined. There are two types of Arguments.

  • Call by Value – Value passed will get modified only inside the function, and it returns the same value whatever it is passed into the function.
  • Call by Reference – Value passed will get modified in both inside and outside the functions and it returns the same or different value.

20) What is the super keyword?

The super keyword is used to invoke the overridden method, which overrides one of its superclass methods. This keyword allows to access overridden methods and also to access hidden members of the superclass.

It also forwards a call from a constructor, to a constructor in the superclass.

21) What is method overriding?

Method overriding is a feature that allows a subclass to provide the implementation of a method that overrides in the main class. It will override the implementation in the superclass by providing the same method name, same parameter, and same return type.

22) What is an interface?

An interface is a collection of an abstract method. If the class implements an interface, it thereby inherits all the abstract methods of an interface.

Java uses Interface to implement multiple inheritances.

23) What is exception handling?

An exception is an event that occurs during the execution of a program. Exceptions can be of any type – Runtime exception, Error exceptions. Those exceptions are adequately handled through exception handling mechanism like try, catch, and throw keywords.

24) What are tokens?

A compiler recognizes a token, and it cannot be broken down into component elements. Keywords, identifiers, constants, string literals, and operators are examples of tokens.

Even punctuation characters are also considered as tokens. Example: Brackets, Commas, Braces, and Parentheses.

25) What is the main difference between overloading and overriding?

Overloading is static Binding, whereas Overriding is dynamic Binding. Overloading is nothing but the same method with different arguments, and it may or may not return the equal value in the same class itself.

Overriding is the same method names with the same arguments and return types associated with the class and its child class.

26) What is the main difference between a class and an object?

An object is an instance of a class. Objects hold multiple information, but classes don’t have any information. Definition of properties and functions can be done in class and can be used by the object.

A class can have sub-classes, while an object doesn’t have sub-objects.

27) What is an abstraction?

Abstraction is a useful feature of OOPS, and it shows only the necessary details to the client of an object. Meaning, it shows only required details for an object, not the inner constructors, of an object. Example – When you want to switch on the television, it is not necessary to know the inner circuitry/mechanism needed to switch on the TV. Whatever is required to switch on TV will be shown by using an abstract class.

28) What are the access modifiers?

Access modifiers determine the scope of the method or variables that can be accessed from other various objects or classes. There are five types of access modifiers, and they are as follows:

  • Private
  • Protected
  • Public
  • Friend
  • Protected Friend

29) What are sealed modifiers?

Sealed modifiers are the access modifiers where the methods can not inherit it. Sealed modifiers can also be applied to properties, events, and methods. This modifier cannot be used to static members.

30) How can we call the base method without creating an instance?

Yes, it is possible to call the base method without creating an instance. And that method should be “Static method.”

Doing Inheritance from that class.-Use Base Keyword from a derived class.

31) What is the difference between new and override?

The new modifier instructs the compiler to use the new implementation instead of the base class function. Whereas, Override modifier helps to override the base class function.

32) What are the various types of constructors?

There are three types of constructors:

–  Default Constructor – With no parameters.

–  Parametric Constructor – With Parameters. Create a new instance of a class and also passing arguments simultaneously.

–  Copy Constructor – Which creates a new object as a copy of an existing object.

33) What is early and late Binding?

Early binding refers to the assignment of values to variables during design time, whereas late Binding refers to the assignment of values to variables during run time.

34) What is ‘this’ pointer?

THIS pointer refers to the current object of a class. THIS keyword is used as a pointer which differentiates between the current object with the global object. It refers to the current object.

35) What is the difference between structure and a class?

The default access type of a Structure is public, but class access type is private. A structure is used for grouping data, whereas a class can be used for grouping data and methods. Structures are exclusively used for data, and it doesn’t require strict validation, but classes are used to encapsulate and inherent data, which requires strict validation.

36) What is the default access modifier in a class?

The default access modifier of a class is Private by default.

37) What is a pure virtual function?

A pure virtual function is a function which can be overridden in the derived class but cannot be defined. A virtual function can be declared as Pure by using the operator =0.

Example –

Virtual void function1() // Virtual, Not pure
Virtual void function2() = 0 //Pure virtual

38) What are all the operators that cannot be overloaded?

Following are the operators that cannot be overloaded -.

  1. Scope Resolution (::)
  2. Member Selection (.)
  3. Member selection through a pointer to function (.*)

39) What is dynamic or run time polymorphism?

Dynamic or Run time polymorphism is also known as method overriding in which call to an overridden function is resolved during run time, not at the compile time. It means having two or more methods with the same name, same signature but with different implementation.

40) Do we require a parameter for constructors?

No, we do not require a parameter for constructors.

41) What is a copy constructor?

This is a special constructor for creating a new object as a copy of an existing object. There will always be only one copy constructor that can be either defined by the user or the system.

42) What does the keyword virtual represented in the method definition?

It means we can override the method.

43) Whether static method can use nonstatic members?


44) What are a base class, subclass, and superclass?

The base class is the most generalized class, and it is said to be a root class.

A Subclass is a class that inherits from one or more base classes.

The superclass is the parent class from which another class inherits.

45) What is static and dynamic Binding?

Binding is nothing but the association of a name with the class. Static Binding is a binding in which name can be associated with the class during compilation time, and it is also called as early Binding.

Dynamic Binding is a binding in which name can be associated with the class during execution time, and it is also called as Late Binding.

46) How many instances can be created for an abstract class?

Zero instances will be created for an abstract class. In other words, you cannot create an instance of an Abstract Class.

47) Which keyword can be used for overloading?

Operator keyword is used for overloading.

48) What is the default access specifier in a class definition?

Private access specifier is used in a class definition.

49) Which OOPS concept is used as a reuse mechanism?

Inheritance is the OOPS concept that can be used as a reuse mechanism.

50) Which OOPS concept exposes only the necessary information to the calling functions?


How to Monitor and Fix the Server Load

What is Server Load?

Website owners and users will be familiar with the computing term “Load”. In Unix computing, the system load is a measure of the amount of computational work that a computer system performs. The load average represents the average system load over a period of time. It conventionally appears in the form of three numbers which represent the system load during the last one-, five-, and fifteen-minute periods.

What are the causes of Server Load?

The server load can be caused by the excessive usage of the system resources. Excessive usage of the CPU or Memory or Disk Space can lead to the server load.

How to check the Server Load?

There are many ways to check the server load. The commonly used command to view the server load is ‘top‘ but ‘top‘ command displays the processes running dynamically. It needs resources a bit more when comparing to other methods. So normally, when a server is under high load, the usage of ‘top‘ command is not encouraged. We can view the server loads by using the following commands ‘w‘ and ‘uptime‘.

server load

        Viewing Server Load using ‘w’ and ‘uptime’ commands

server load

        Monitoring Server Load with the ‘top’ command

These are the ways to check the Server Load. As we can see, while using the top command, it will give a dynamic output which means the output screen will be updated within certain time intervals and so that we will be able to see the load and processes with the resource usage instantly.

In the output of the ‘top‘ command, on the line that says “Cpu(s)”, check the “%id” section which shows the percentage of which your CPUs are idle. The higher the number the better the situation. A 99% idle CPU is not doing much of anything, and a 1% idle CPU is heavily tasked. We can sort the output by processes that are currently consuming the most CPU by hitting ‘p’.

We can use the ‘top c‘ command also to view the current CPU usage.

Check the Memory Usage

The next step is checking the RAM. Run the following command to view the current memory usage.

server load

        Using ‘free -m’ command to monitor the Physical Memory usage

Check the Current disk I/O usage

We can check the current disk usage by running the following command.

# iostat -x 1 10

Please keep in mind that this will not work on OpenVZ/Virtuozzo containers.

This will print the disk usage statistics 10 times, every 1 seconds. Check the %util column.

Check the Process List

You can view the process list with the help of the following command.

# ps auxf

server load

This will help to identify which process is consuming more resources.

These are the methods used to identify the Server Load by monitoring the system resources. Once the Server Load is identified, we can troubleshoot it easily by taking appropriate actions.

If you need any further assistance please contact our support department.

Check the System Load on Linux


First let’s check the load on your server using the uptime command.

$ uptime
15:16:45 up 41 days,  2:35,  2 users,  load average: 0.01, 3.01, 2.70

The example shows the output from uptime. When the command was run at 15:16:45, the server had been up for 41 days 2 hours and 35 minutes, there were two users logged on and the load averages were 0.01, 3.01 and 2.70.

The load average represents the work being done by the system. The three numbers show the load averages for the last minute, 5 minutes and 15 minutes, respectively. A load average of 1 reflects the full workload of a single processor on the system. A load of 2 on a system with two CPUs means that those CPUs were working at maximum. On a system with four CPUs, that 2 reflects a workload using about half of the available processing power.

Under normal circumstances you’ll want the load average to be 70% of your total CPU usage or less. You can check the number of CPUs available to your instance by running the following command:

grep processor /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l

If the load averages show that the load is increasing and is above the number of CPUs, you should look into the cause of the high load. A load above the number of CPUs means that the system is having to queue up processor requests, which reduces performance.


The top command displays real time information regarding the server’s resource usage. The first few lines will give you a summary of the resource utilisation on your system and you can sort the list of processes by CPU (P) or memory (M) use which allows you to quickly see where your server is receiving the biggest demands on its resources.


The amount of memory a system has is one of the most common restraining factors. The swap is an area of the hard drive where data is moved to free up physical memory (RAM) for a process to use (not all servers have swap space configured). A system using its swap area does not necessarily mean it is low on memory, but if most of your system’s swap is being consumed it could indicate that your server is trying to do more than its available memory permits.

If swap space is configured and you suspect your server is running out of standard memory, you can use vmstat to show how much swapping is occurring.

The following example displays a system’s virtual memory statistics 10 times at 5 second intervals.

$ vmstat 5 10
procs -----------memory-------------  ---swap---- -----io---- --system--  -----cpu------
r  b    swpd    free   buff  cache       si    so    bi    bo   in    cs us sy  id wa st
2  3   138096   3904    140    584    14829 33632 16684 33633 1353 11562 64  9  16 11  0
7  4   156592   3800    132    492    53570 48618 54264 48622 2762 8148  20  5  50 24  0
2  7   258552   3040    128    668    37910 39822 39766 39826 2763 10861 43  8  23 26  0
7  4   261608   4312    116    776    41696 30854 42171 30855 2771 8631  26  6  33 35  0
3  4   259316   3824    112    576    44616 32316 44697 32320 2746 7087  15  4  52 28  0
0  5   257000   3376    116    880    25895 19847 26622 19848 1673 2877   1  2  68 29  0
4  4   263240   3384    124   1424    30018 21066 30497 21070 1732 4559   9  3  64 24  0
2 14   264656   5740    120   1812    27685 19030 28029 19031 2194 5345  11  3  51 35  0
6  3   338044   3764    132   1568    20087 31066 20470 31070 1798 9847  46  6  33 14  0
2  4   325904   4048    108   1172    13251 7190  13812  7190 1193 8838  38  5  24 32  0

In the example the free column shows that the amount of free memory is only around 4MB.

The si and so columns show the amount of data being transferred between the system’s swap and its memory. In this example you can see there is lots of data being moved. so is the amount of data being moved to the swap to free up memory. si is the amount of data being pulled from the swap back in to memory. This happens when the data is required for a process to run.

When a server is constantly swapping into and out of memory it is an indication that the load it is being placed under is too great for the resources it has available. top can be used to help identify the processes that are consuming the most resources.


If top and vmstat indicate that the server is using all its resources you need to look at optimising your current set up; this can include running any processing jobs outside peak hours, killing any processes no longer required and reconfiguring processes so they require less resources. You may also want to consider increasing the size of your server to better match your requirements.

सम्पूर्ण गीता का सार

बेकार की चिंता हम क्यों करते हैं
बेकार में ही हम किसी से क्यों डरते हैं
कोई भी हमें मार नहीं सकता .आत्म अज़र अमर है.
आत्म न कभी जन्म लेती है और न ही कभी मरती है.
इस संसार में जो हो रहा है अच्छा ही हो रहा है.
जो भी अब तक हुआ है वो भी अच्छा ही हुआ है.
और आगे भी जो होगा वो अच्छा ही होगा.
जो बीत गया उसके लिए पश्चाताप करने से
कुछ भी हासिल होने वाला नहीं है.
आने वाले वक़्त की चिंता हमें नहीं करनी चाहिए .
अपने वर्तमान को जीने में ही समझदारी है.
जो हाथ से निकल गया
उसके लिए बेकार में ही हम क्यों रोते हैं .
हमारा क्या चला गया.
हम अपने साथ न कुछ लाये थे
और न ही हमने कुछ उत्पन्न किया.
जो भी हमने लिया , यहीं से लिया.
और जो हमने दिया, यहीं से दिया.
हम खाली हाथ आये थे
और हमें खाली हाथ ही चले जाना है
जो आज हमारा है वो कल किसी और का होगा.
उसे अपना समझकर खुश होने से कोई लाभ नहीं.
परिवर्तन इस संसार का नियम है.
और मृत्यु जीवन का अटल सत्य है.
एक पल में हम अपार दौलत के मालिक बन जाते हैं
तो अगले ही पल हम बिल्कुल कंगाल हो जाते हैं.
तेरा-मेरा, छोटा-बड़ा , अपना-पराया
अपने मन से दूर करने में ही हमारी भलाई है.
ये शरीर तक हमारा नहीं है.
और न ही हम इस शरीर के हैं.
ये शरीर पांच तत्वों अग्नि, जल, वायु, पृथ्वी
और आकाश से मिलकर बना है
और अंत में इन्ही तत्वों में मिल जाएगा.
हम अपने आप को भगवान् के समक्ष अर्पित कर दें.
यही सबसे उत्तम सहारा है.
और भय ,चिंता और शोक से मुक्ति पाने का
एक सर्वश्रेष्ठ मार्ग भी है .
हम जो कुछ भी करें भगवान् को अर्पण करें.
यही जीवन मुक्ति का सरल और सच्चा मार्ग है.

ITR forms for AY 2019-20 notified – Complete list of ITR forms and their usage

New Delhi: The Income Tax department has notified various forms related to I-T return filing for individuals as well as companies for the assessment year 2019-20.

The Tax department has made no change in ITR-1 form or Sahaj, however it has rationalised some sections in ITR 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7.

The last date of filing Income Tax Return (ITR) is July 31 for those who are not required to get their accounts audited.

Here are various types of ITR forms and their usage

ITR-1 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals total income upto Rs 50 lakh, having Income from Salaries, one house property, other sources (Interest etc.), and agricultural income upto Rs 5 thousand.

You can download the form here.

ITR-2 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals and HUFs not having income from profits and gains of business or profession.

You can download the form here.

ITR-3 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals and HUFs having income from profits and gains of business or profession.

ITR-4 or Sugam for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals, HUFs and Firms (other than LLP) having total income upto Rs 50 lakh and having income from business and profession which is computed under sections 44AD, 44ADA or 44AE.

You can download the form here.

ITR-5 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by persons other than,- (i) individual, (ii) HUF, (iii) company and (iv) person filing Form ITR-7

You can download the form here.

ITR-6 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by Companies other than companies claiming exemption under section 11.

ITR-7 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by persons including companies required to furnish return under sections 139(4A) or 139(4B) or 139(4C) or 139(4D) only.

Turn Your Browser Into a Phone With the Sinch JS SDK

This tutorial will walk you through building a web app to make VoIP calls between browsers. There are many scenarios in which this is useful, including anonymously connecting users on a dating website, securely connecting buyers with sellers in a marketplace and allowing users to make low-cost international calls.

The UI isn’t anything to write home about, but the finished web app will looking something like this:


The finished code for this tutorial can be found on our Github.


  1. If you don’t have a Sinch developer account, sign up and register a new app here
  2. Download the SDK from here
  3. Create an index.html file with references to jQuery and the Sinch JavaScript SDK:
    <title>Sinch Web Calling</title>
    <script src=""></script>
    <script src="sinch.min.js"></script>

Create the UI

There are two parts to the UI for this app: a login form and a call screen. Users will first see the login screen and after successfully logging in, they will see the call screen:

<form id="auth">
    <input id="username" placeholder="username">
    <input id="password" type="password" placeholder="password">
    <button id="loginUser">Login</button>
    <button id="createUser">Signup</button>

<div id="call" style="display:none;">
    current user: <span id="username"></span>
    <button id="logout">Logout</button>

        <input id="callUsername" placeholder="username"><br>
        <button id="call">Call</button>
        <button id="hangup">Hangup</button>
        <button id="answer">Answer</button>

        <audio id="incoming" autoplay></audio>
        <div id="callLog"></div>

Login and user registration

This section will demonstrate how to log in and register users using the Sinch SDK. For this tutorial, you will use a very basic backend for user management to get started. You should not use this in a production environment. In production, you should use your own user authentication. You can find a .net sample project here.

First, create an instance of the Sinch client:

sinchClient = new SinchClient({
    applicationKey: 'your-app-key',
    capabilities: {calling: true},

Then, either create or log in the user and start the Sinch client:

//store the username of the current user
var global_username = '';

$('button#createUser').on('click', function(event) {
    $('button#createUser').attr('disabled', true);
    $('button#loginUser').attr('disabled', true);

     var username = $('input#username').val();
     var password = $('input#password').val();

    var loginObject = {username: username, password: password};
    sinchClient.newUser(loginObject, function(ticket) {
          sinchClient.start(ticket, function() {
            global_username = username;

$('button#loginUser').on('click', function(event) {
    $('button#createUser').attr('disabled', true);
    $('button#loginUser').attr('disabled', true);

    var username = $('input#username').val();
    var password = $('input#password').val();

    var loginObject = {username: username, password: password};
    sinchClient.start(loginObject, function() {
          global_username = username;

//handle errors
var handleError = function(error) {
     $('button#createUser').attr('disabled', false);
     $('button#loginUser').attr('disabled', false);

//clear out old errors
var clearError = function() {

//show the call screen
var showCall = function() {
    $('form#auth').css('display', 'none');

Make outgoing calls

Once a user is authenticated, you will use the Sinch call client to make outgoing calls. First, define a custom call listener. This lets you make decisions based on whether a call is ringing, connected or ended:

var callListener = {
    onCallProgressing: function(call) {
    onCallEstablished: function(call) {
        $('audio#incoming').attr('src', call.incomingStreamURL);
        $('div#callLog').append("<div>Call answered</div>");
    onCallEnded: function(call) {
        $('div#callLog').append("<div>Call ended</div>");

Then, define the Sinch call client and a variable to store the current call:

var callClient = sinchClient.getCallClient();
   var call;

When the call button is clicked, disable the call and answer buttons, tell the user who they are calling and initiate the call. Lastly, add a call listener to the current call.

$('button#call').click(function(event) {

    $('button#call').attr('disabled', 'disabled');
    $('button#answer').attr('disabled', 'disabled');
    $('div#callLog').append("<div>Calling " + $('input#callUsername').val() + "</div>");

    call = callClient.callUser($('input#callUsername').val());

To hang up the call:

$('button#hangup').click(function(event) {

    call && call.hangup();

Receive incoming calls

Your app should also listen for incoming calls:

    onIncomingCall: function(incomingCall) {
    $('div#callLog').append("<div>Incoming call from " + incomingCall.fromId + "</div>");

    call = incomingCall;

Test it

To test your app, open two browser windows, log in as two different users and make the call. Some browsers will ask for permission to use the microphone on your computer when you place the call.

Happy coding! If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to us on Twitter or via our help page.