100+ World Top Rivers and Lakes Lists

The world top 100 rivers and lakes name. Important top 100 list of rivers and lakes. Read and learn all of these GK and improve your GK skills. Get start here.

Toledo (USA)ErifLAKE
Buffalo (USA)OntarioLAKE
Asuncion (Paraguay)ParaguayRIVER
Belem (Brazil)AmazonRIVER
Cairo (Egypt)NileRIVER
Colombo (Sri Lanka)KelaniRIVER
Kabul (Afghanistan)KabulRIVER
Bucharest (Romania)DimbovitaRIVER
Cognac (France)CharenteRIVER
Galafi (Romania)DanubeRIVER
Galafi (Romania)SiretRIVER
Cambridge (U.K.)CamRIVER
Oxford (U.K.)ThamesRIVER
Panaji (Goa, India)MandoviRIVER
Alexandria (Egypt)NileRIVER
Khartoum (Sudan)Blue NileRIVER
Khartoum (Sudan)White NileRIVER
Omudurma (Sudan)NileRIVER
Kisume (Kenya)VictoriaLAKE
Kampala (Upanda)VictoriaLAKE
Jinja (Upganda)NileRIVER
Jinja (Upganda)VictoriaLAKE
Lokoja (Nigeria)NigerRIVER
Lokoja (Nigeria)BenueRIVER
Vancouver (Canada)FraserRIVER
Qyuebec (Canada)St. LawrenceRIVER
Hamiliton (Canada)OntarioLAKE
Arvida (Canada)SaguenayRIVER
Sarnia (Canada)HuronLAKE
Sudbury (Canada)HuronLAKE
Portland (USA)ColumbiaRIVER
Cleveland (USA)ErifLAKE
Gary (USA)MichiganLAKE
Milwaukee (USA)MichiganLAKE
Philadelphia (USA)DelawareRIVER
New York City (USA)HudsonRIVER
Baton Rouge (USA)MississippiRIVER
Port Harcourt (Nigeria)NigerRIVER
BrazzavilieZaire (Congo)RIVER
Kiruna (Sweden)TorneRIVER
Lisbon (Portugal)DouroRIVER
Paris (France)SeineRIVER
Bordeaux (France)GarroneRIVER
Lyons (France)SaoneRIVER
Lyons (France)RhoneRIVER
Le Havre (France)SeineRIVER
Rouen (France)SeineRIVER
Rome (Italy)TiberRIVER
Antwerp (Belgium)ScheldtRIVER
London (Britain)ThamesRIVER
New Castle (U.K.)TyneRIVER
Glasgow (U.K.)ClydeRIVER
Moscow (Russia)MoskvaRIVER
Petrozavosk (Russia)OnegaLAKE
Stalingrad (Russia)VolgaRIVER
Krasnoyark (Russia)YeniseyRIVER
Bratsk (Russia)AngaraRIVER
Irkutsk (Russia)BaikalLAKE
Nickopol (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Zaragoza (Spain)EbroRIVER
Nantes (France)LoireRIVER
Saratov (Russia)VolgaRIVER
Rostov (Russia)DonRIVER
Kiev (Ukraine)DnieperRIVER
Vienna (Austria)DanubeRIVER
Dusseldorf (Germany)RhineRIVER
Cologne (Germany)RhineRIVER
Washington (USA)PotomacRIVER
Perth (Australia)SwanRIVER
Freemantle (Australia)SwanRIVER
Sydney (Australia)DarlingRIVER
Nanking (China)Yangtze KiangRIVER
Hongkong (China)CantonRIVER
Macao (China)PearlRIVER
Vientiane (Laos)MekongRIVER
Vatican CityTiberRIVER
Berlin (Germany)SpreeRIVER
Frankfurt (Germany)RhineRIVER
Frankfurt (Germany)MainRIVER
Leipzig (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Dresden (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Bingen (Germany)RhineRIVER
Hamburg (Germany)ElbeRIVER
Bremen (Germany)WeserRIVER
Krakow (Poland)VistulaRIVER
Mandalay (Myanmar)IrrawaddyRIVER
Chauk (Myanmar)IrrawaddyRIVER
Bangkok (Thailand)Chao PrayaRIVER
Baghdad (Iraq)TigrisRIVER
Lahore (Pakistan)RaviRIVER
Kathmandu (Nepal)BaghmatiRIVER
Kathmandu (Nepal)VishnumaRIVER

gstr 9c explanation

GSTR 9C is the GST reconciliation Statement for a particular financial year. Taxpayers have to get it certified by CAs before filing. The due date for filing GSTR-9C is on or before 31st December.

GSTR 9C is used for Normal GST Audit / Certification by a Chartered Accountant or a Cost Accountant. It means every registered taxpayer whose aggregate turnover during a financial year exceeds 2 crore rupees has to get their statement audited. Also, they have to furnish a copy of audited annual accounts and a duly certified reconciliation statement in FORM GSTR 9C.

What is GSTR-9C?

GSTR-9C is a statement of reconciliation between:

  • GSTR 9 (Annual returns) filed for an FY, and
  • Figures as per Audited Annual Financial statements of the taxpayer.

GSTR-9C is to be certified by the CA. It is similar to the tax audit report furnished under the Income tax act.

It will consist of gross and taxable turnover as per the Books reconciled with the respective figures as per the consolidation of all the GST returns for an FY. Hence, any differences arising from this reconciliation will be reported along with the reasons for the same.

The certification is separate for different GSTINs of the same company. So, for one PAN there can be many reports of GSTR 9C.

Who will prepare & submit GSTR 9C?

A Cost Accountant or a Chartered Accountant has to prepare and certify GSTR 9C. It has to be submitted on the GST portal along with:

  • the GST Annual Returns(GSTR-9) and
  • the Audited Financial Statements

You can also file through the facilitation center.

This statement is applicable to all those taxpayers who must get their Annual Accounts audited under the GST laws.

What is the due date for GSTR 9C?

The due date for submitting the GSTR 9C has the same deadline as of submitting GSTR 9. Hence, you have to file GSTR 9C on or before 31st Dec of the year subsequent to the relevant FY under audit. For example, for the FY 2017-18, the due date for filing GSTR 9C will be 31st Dec 2018.

What’s the importance of GSTR 9C?

A Chartered accountant or cost accountant will prepare this GST Reconciliation statement. The CA has to report any differences between the details in GST returns and the audit.

Also, this statement acts as a base for the GST authorities to verify the correctness of the GST returns filed by the taxpayers. This is because the CA has to certify any additional liability arising out of the reconciliation exercise and GST audit in GSTR 9C.

What are the contents of the GSTR 9C?

GSTR-9C consists of two main parts:

  • Part-A: Reconciliation Statement
  • Part-B: Certification

Part-A: Reconciliation Statement

The figures in the audited financial statements are at PAN level. Hence, the turnover, Tax paid and ITC earned on a particular GSTIN must be taken out from the audited accounts of the organisation as a whole.

The Reconciliation Statement consists of five parts as follows:


Basic details -> Consists of FY, GSTIN, Legal Name, and Trade Name. The taxpayer must also mention if they are subject to audit under any other law.


Reconciliation of turnover declared in the Audited Annual Financial Statement with turnover declared in Annual Return (GSTR 9) -> the process consists of reporting the gross and taxable turnover declared in the Annual return with the Audited Financial Statements. As Audited Financial statement is at a PAN level, this might require the break-up of the audited financial statement at GSTIN level for reporting in GSTR 9C.


Reconciliation of tax paid -> This section requires GST rate-wise reporting of the tax liability that arose in FY as per the accounts and paid as reported in the GSTR 9 respectively with the differences thereof. Also, it requires the taxpayers to state the additional liability due to un-reconciled differences noticed upon reconciliation.


Reconciliation of Input Tax Credit (ITC) -> this consists the reconciliation of input tax credit availed and utilized by taxpayers as reported in GSTR 9 and as reported in the Audited Financial Statement. Also, it needs a reporting of expenses booked as per the audited accounts, with a breakup of eligible and ineligible ITC. And the reconciliation of the eligible ITC with that amount claimed as per GSTR 9. This declaration will be after considering the reversals of ITC claimed, if any.


Auditor’s recommendation on additional Liability due to non-reconciliation -> Here, the Auditor must report any tax liability identified through the reconciliation process and GST audit, pending for payment by the taxpayer.

This can be non-reconciliation of turnover or ITC on account of:

  • Amount paid for supplies in case not included in the Annual Returns(GSTR 9)
  • Erroneous Refund to be paid back
  • Other Outstanding demands to be settled

Part-B: Certification

The GSTR 9C can be certified by the same CA who conducted the GST audit.  Also, it can be certified by any other CA who did not conduct the GST Audit for that particular GSTIN.

The difference between both is that in case the CA certifying the GSTR 9C did not conduct the GST audit, he must have based an opinion on the Books of Accounts audited by another CA in the reconciliation statement. The format for certification report will vary depending on who the certifier is.

And with that, we end this post of GSTR 9C. If you have any questions, drop them in the comment section below.

oops in php interview questions

1) What is OOPS?

OOPS is abbreviated as Object Oriented Programming system in which programs are considered as a collection of objects. Each object is nothing but an instance of a class.

2) Write basic concepts of OOPS?

Following are the concepts of OOPS:

  1. Abstraction
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Inheritance
  4. Polymorphism

3) What is a class?

A class is simply a representation of a type of object. It is the blueprint/plan/template that describes the details of an object.

4) What is an Object?

An object is an instance of a class. It has its own state, behavior, and identity.

5) What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is an attribute of an object, and it contains all data which is hidden. That hidden data can be restricted to the members of that class.

Levels are Public, Protected, Private, Internal, and Protected Internal.

6) What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is nothing but assigning behavior or value in a subclass to something that was already declared in the main class. Simply, polymorphism takes more than one form.

7) What is Inheritance?

Inheritance is a concept where one class shares the structure and behavior defined in another class. If Inheritance applied to one class is called Single Inheritance, and if it depends on multiple classes, then it is called multiple Inheritance.

8) What are manipulators?

Manipulators are the functions which can be used in conjunction with the insertion (<<) and extraction (>>) operators on an object. Examples are endl and setw.

9) Explain the term constructor

A constructor is a method used to initialize the state of an object, and it gets invoked at the time of object creation. Rules for constructor are:

  • Constructor Name should be the same as a class name.
  • A constructor must have no return type.

10) Define Destructor?

A destructor is a method which is automatically called when the object is made of scope or destroyed. Destructor name is also same as class name but with the tilde symbol before the name.

11) What is an Inline function?

An inline function is a technique used by the compilers and instructs to insert complete body of the function wherever that function is used in the program source code.

12) What is a virtual function?

A virtual function is a member function of a class, and its functionality can be overridden in its derived class. This function can be implemented by using a keyword called virtual, and it can be given during function declaration.

A virtual function can be declared using a token(virtual) in C++. It can be achieved in C/Python Language by using function pointers or pointers to function.

13) What is a friend function?

A friend function is a friend of a class that is allowed to access to Public, private, or protected data in that same class. If the function is defined outside the class cannot access such information.

A friend can be declared anywhere in the class declaration, and it cannot be affected by access control keywords like private, public, or protected.

14) What is function overloading?

Function overloading is a regular function, but it can perform different tasks. It allows the creation of several methods with the same name which differ from each other by the type of input and output of the function.


void add(int& a, int& b);
void add(double& a, double& b);
void add(struct bob& a, struct bob& b);

15) What is operator overloading?

Operator overloading is a function where different operators are applied and depends on the arguments. Operator,-,* can be used to pass through the function, and it has its own precedence to execute

16) What is an abstract class?

An abstract class is a class which cannot be instantiated. Creation of an object is not possible with an abstract class, but it can be inherited. An abstract class can contain only an Abstract method. Java allows only abstract method in abstract class while other languages allow non-abstract method as well.

17) What is a ternary operator?

The ternary operator is said to be an operator which takes three arguments. Arguments and results are of different data types, and it depends on the function. The ternary operator is also called a conditional operator.

18) What is the use of finalize method?

Finalize method helps to perform cleanup operations on the resources which are not currently used. Finalize method is protected, and it is accessible only through this class or by a derived class.

19) What are the different types of arguments?

A parameter is a variable used during the declaration of the function or subroutine, and arguments are passed to the function body, and it should match with the parameter defined. There are two types of Arguments.

  • Call by Value – Value passed will get modified only inside the function, and it returns the same value whatever it is passed into the function.
  • Call by Reference – Value passed will get modified in both inside and outside the functions and it returns the same or different value.

20) What is the super keyword?

The super keyword is used to invoke the overridden method, which overrides one of its superclass methods. This keyword allows to access overridden methods and also to access hidden members of the superclass.

It also forwards a call from a constructor, to a constructor in the superclass.

21) What is method overriding?

Method overriding is a feature that allows a subclass to provide the implementation of a method that overrides in the main class. It will override the implementation in the superclass by providing the same method name, same parameter, and same return type.

22) What is an interface?

An interface is a collection of an abstract method. If the class implements an interface, it thereby inherits all the abstract methods of an interface.

Java uses Interface to implement multiple inheritances.

23) What is exception handling?

An exception is an event that occurs during the execution of a program. Exceptions can be of any type – Runtime exception, Error exceptions. Those exceptions are adequately handled through exception handling mechanism like try, catch, and throw keywords.

24) What are tokens?

A compiler recognizes a token, and it cannot be broken down into component elements. Keywords, identifiers, constants, string literals, and operators are examples of tokens.

Even punctuation characters are also considered as tokens. Example: Brackets, Commas, Braces, and Parentheses.

25) What is the main difference between overloading and overriding?

Overloading is static Binding, whereas Overriding is dynamic Binding. Overloading is nothing but the same method with different arguments, and it may or may not return the equal value in the same class itself.

Overriding is the same method names with the same arguments and return types associated with the class and its child class.

26) What is the main difference between a class and an object?

An object is an instance of a class. Objects hold multiple information, but classes don’t have any information. Definition of properties and functions can be done in class and can be used by the object.

A class can have sub-classes, while an object doesn’t have sub-objects.

27) What is an abstraction?

Abstraction is a useful feature of OOPS, and it shows only the necessary details to the client of an object. Meaning, it shows only required details for an object, not the inner constructors, of an object. Example – When you want to switch on the television, it is not necessary to know the inner circuitry/mechanism needed to switch on the TV. Whatever is required to switch on TV will be shown by using an abstract class.

28) What are the access modifiers?

Access modifiers determine the scope of the method or variables that can be accessed from other various objects or classes. There are five types of access modifiers, and they are as follows:

  • Private
  • Protected
  • Public
  • Friend
  • Protected Friend

29) What are sealed modifiers?

Sealed modifiers are the access modifiers where the methods can not inherit it. Sealed modifiers can also be applied to properties, events, and methods. This modifier cannot be used to static members.

30) How can we call the base method without creating an instance?

Yes, it is possible to call the base method without creating an instance. And that method should be “Static method.”

Doing Inheritance from that class.-Use Base Keyword from a derived class.

31) What is the difference between new and override?

The new modifier instructs the compiler to use the new implementation instead of the base class function. Whereas, Override modifier helps to override the base class function.

32) What are the various types of constructors?

There are three types of constructors:

–  Default Constructor – With no parameters.

–  Parametric Constructor – With Parameters. Create a new instance of a class and also passing arguments simultaneously.

–  Copy Constructor – Which creates a new object as a copy of an existing object.

33) What is early and late Binding?

Early binding refers to the assignment of values to variables during design time, whereas late Binding refers to the assignment of values to variables during run time.

34) What is ‘this’ pointer?

THIS pointer refers to the current object of a class. THIS keyword is used as a pointer which differentiates between the current object with the global object. It refers to the current object.

35) What is the difference between structure and a class?

The default access type of a Structure is public, but class access type is private. A structure is used for grouping data, whereas a class can be used for grouping data and methods. Structures are exclusively used for data, and it doesn’t require strict validation, but classes are used to encapsulate and inherent data, which requires strict validation.

36) What is the default access modifier in a class?

The default access modifier of a class is Private by default.

37) What is a pure virtual function?

A pure virtual function is a function which can be overridden in the derived class but cannot be defined. A virtual function can be declared as Pure by using the operator =0.

Example –

Virtual void function1() // Virtual, Not pure
Virtual void function2() = 0 //Pure virtual

38) What are all the operators that cannot be overloaded?

Following are the operators that cannot be overloaded -.

  1. Scope Resolution (::)
  2. Member Selection (.)
  3. Member selection through a pointer to function (.*)

39) What is dynamic or run time polymorphism?

Dynamic or Run time polymorphism is also known as method overriding in which call to an overridden function is resolved during run time, not at the compile time. It means having two or more methods with the same name, same signature but with different implementation.

40) Do we require a parameter for constructors?

No, we do not require a parameter for constructors.

41) What is a copy constructor?

This is a special constructor for creating a new object as a copy of an existing object. There will always be only one copy constructor that can be either defined by the user or the system.

42) What does the keyword virtual represented in the method definition?

It means we can override the method.

43) Whether static method can use nonstatic members?


44) What are a base class, subclass, and superclass?

The base class is the most generalized class, and it is said to be a root class.

A Subclass is a class that inherits from one or more base classes.

The superclass is the parent class from which another class inherits.

45) What is static and dynamic Binding?

Binding is nothing but the association of a name with the class. Static Binding is a binding in which name can be associated with the class during compilation time, and it is also called as early Binding.

Dynamic Binding is a binding in which name can be associated with the class during execution time, and it is also called as Late Binding.

46) How many instances can be created for an abstract class?

Zero instances will be created for an abstract class. In other words, you cannot create an instance of an Abstract Class.

47) Which keyword can be used for overloading?

Operator keyword is used for overloading.

48) What is the default access specifier in a class definition?

Private access specifier is used in a class definition.

49) Which OOPS concept is used as a reuse mechanism?

Inheritance is the OOPS concept that can be used as a reuse mechanism.

50) Which OOPS concept exposes only the necessary information to the calling functions?


ITR forms for AY 2019-20 notified – Complete list of ITR forms and their usage

New Delhi: The Income Tax department has notified various forms related to I-T return filing for individuals as well as companies for the assessment year 2019-20.

The Tax department has made no change in ITR-1 form or Sahaj, however it has rationalised some sections in ITR 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7.

The last date of filing Income Tax Return (ITR) is July 31 for those who are not required to get their accounts audited.

Here are various types of ITR forms and their usage

ITR-1 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals total income upto Rs 50 lakh, having Income from Salaries, one house property, other sources (Interest etc.), and agricultural income upto Rs 5 thousand.

You can download the form here.

ITR-2 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals and HUFs not having income from profits and gains of business or profession.

You can download the form here.

ITR-3 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals and HUFs having income from profits and gains of business or profession.

ITR-4 or Sugam for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by individuals, HUFs and Firms (other than LLP) having total income upto Rs 50 lakh and having income from business and profession which is computed under sections 44AD, 44ADA or 44AE.

You can download the form here.

ITR-5 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by persons other than,- (i) individual, (ii) HUF, (iii) company and (iv) person filing Form ITR-7

You can download the form here.

ITR-6 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by Companies other than companies claiming exemption under section 11.

ITR-7 for AY 2019-20

This form is to be filed by persons including companies required to furnish return under sections 139(4A) or 139(4B) or 139(4C) or 139(4D) only.

which language is best for socket programming

It really depends on what you mean by network programming. So I’ll run through a couple possibilities. Commentators: Don’t fret if I forgot “your language.” The question is so open-ended. It’s like asking ‘What kinds of vehicles are good for getting me from New York City to Boston?’

  • You want to write a program that participates in XML-RPC or similar.
    • C# or Java
  • You are network programming in the context of a web page
    • JavaScript
  • You need some machines to talk to each other in some other existing protocol, and you need it done quickly.
    • Python or Perl
  • You need to write a distributed program that needs to be up and running all the time, not even resting for upgrades
    • Erlang
  • You need to write a distributed program that is very fast and does a bunch of things at once
  • You need to write a new network driver, for a new network protocol you thought up yourself
    • C, C++
  • You just want to network some TCP sockets together

5 Best Programming Languages to Learn for Cyber Security

1. C and C++

C and C++ are critical low-level programming languages that you need to know as a cyber security professional.

These languages provide access to low-level IT infrastructure such as RAM and system processes, which if not well protected, hackers can easily exploit.

The C programming language is the backbone of most operating systems. It is a lean, flexible, and efficient language that can be used to complete a wide range of tasks such as cryptography, image processing, and socket networking.

Essentially, C++ is usually regarded as C’s big brother — which has been concocted with crack, meth, and steroids and mixed without any favors. C++ is a fantastic language that is largely based on C’s source code.

There are several cyber security programs created using C++. For example, Nmap, the network mapper tool, is created using C++.

Here is a marvelous quote from Bjarne Stroustrup, the creator of C++:

“C makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot; C++ makes it harder, but when you do, it blows your whole leg off.”

As a cyber security expert, if you are experienced at using C/C++ programming languages, you’ll know how to respond to attacks targeting lower level operations within your computing environment.

2. Python

Python is a high-level programming language that is increasingly becoming popular among cyber experts.

It’s gaining traction mainly because of its adherence to code readability, clear and simple syntax, and availability of an extensive number of libraries.

So, whatever task you want to do, you can always complete it easily with Python.

For example, you can use the language to send TCP-packets to machines, perform malware analysis, and create intrusion detection systems with minimal reliance on third-party tools.

However, unlike C/C++, Python is not low-level; therefore, it may not provide enough visibility to hardware resources.

Learning Python for cyber security will give you an edge in your career. You’ll be equipped with programming skills that can assist you to identify vulnerabilities and discover how to fix them.

No programming knowledge required

3. JavaScript

JavaScript is a high-level programming language, which is often referred as the “lingua franca” of the web.

JavaScript is a core technology that powers the Internet. Primarily, it’s the language that adds interactivity to web pages.

Although JavaScript was initially implemented only on the client-side in web browsers, it’s now possible to use the language in other types of host infrastructure, such as server-side in databases and offline applications like PDF programs.

Therefore, because of its extensive usage, learning JavaScript can make you go one step ahead of the hackers.

You’ll understand the concepts of how websites and other applications work and the best designs to employ to ward off malicious users.

For example, cross-site scripting is a JavaScript-based attack that involves an attacker implanting malicious code in a web application.

If you are experienced in using the JavaScript programming language, you can prevent such types of attacks from occurring.

4. PHP

PHP is a server-side programming language for developing websites. Because most websites are created using PHP, learning the language will enable you to know how to fend off intruders.

For example, DDoS (Denial-of-service) attacks usually attempt to make web applications unavailable to intended users.

With PHP programming knowledge, coupled with skills in other technologies like JavaScript, you can implement robust solutions to secure web applications.

5. SQL

SQL (Structured Query Language) is mostly used in managing data stored in databases.

Because of the current explosion of data storage systems, SQL is widely used for maintaining and retrieving data.

Similarly, hackers are increasingly orchestrating the language for damaging or exfiltrating the stored data.

For example, SQL injection attacks involve exploiting SQL vulnerabilities to steal or modify data kept in databases.

Therefore, having a good understanding of the SQL language is critical in your cyber security career.

The difference between DV and OV certificates

We know that the SSL-certificates can be divided into three types: DV, OV and EV. In this article, we will focus on the first two types of certificates, DV and OV. We will explain how they differ and when you should choose DV over OV.

DV-certificates (Domain Validation). This is the most basic level of SSL validation. The Certification Authority (CA) only ensure that you are the owner of a specific domain using the information contained in the WHOIS. Naturally, this type of certificate enables secure data encryption on your site, but it does not verify that you are the owner of a legitimate business. It is legitimate, and, most importantly, it is a very quick solution to protect your site using HTTPS. Customers seeing the padlock in your browser will have more trust in your site than before, because the padlock is a recognised sign of legitimacy.

Example of a DV certificate:

A DV certificate is fine where security is not a concern: however, attackers can also use DV-certificates on phishing sites. Unsuspecting users see the trusted pad lock and enter their personal data on the site which can then fall into the hands of fraudsters. The fact that the data channel is secured does not necessarily mean that the data will go to the right people. A user needs to be sure that the site belongs to a legitimate company if they are to make a purchase or input important information. 

For this reason, if security is a necessity for your site, we recommend an OV-certificate.

OV-certificates (Organisation Validation) are required for companies and organisations where users must enter sensitive information (credit card numbers, contact information, etc.).In particular, they are useful for e-commerce sites or online sales. An OV-certificate authenticates the owner of the site and requires legitimate business information for that company. The validation process for these certificates is longer and more detailed. The Certification Authority not only verifies the fact that you own the domain, but also the fact that you are the owner of the company. The company must be in a business registry database and in a trusted online directory (for example, dnb.com). Fraudsters cannot get an OV certificate because their organisation cannot be validated. The main advantage of getting an OV-certificate is that your company will be listed on the certificate.

Example of an OV-certificate:

  • You need to protect sensitive user data
  • You want to display your company name on a certificate (provides more trust amongst users)
  • You are planning to expand the business and grow it to a new level
  • You want people to know that the site is a legitimate organisation, and not a phishing site

You should think about switching from a DV-certificate to an OV-certificate, if:

If you want to switch from a DV-certificate to an OV-certificate, be sure to contact our experts at LeaderTelecom. Our knowledge, experience and streamlined process for dealing with the CAs will make issuing an OV-certificate easy and convenient.

Latest Version of Ionic Provides Universal Design System for Enterprises

Ionic Framework 4.0, rebuilt using open web standards, brings universal compatibility across platforms, devices, and developer frameworks—helping enterprises deliver consistent brand experiences at scale

MADISON, Wis., Jan. 23, 2019 GLOBE NEWSWIRE — Ionic, the most widely used platform for building mobile and desktop apps using web technology, has launched version 4.0 of the open source Ionic Framework. The highly-anticipated release provides a complete cross-platform UI library built on Web Components, compatible with any front-end framework. Through the use of open web standards, Ionic 4.0 helps enterprises address the growing need to adopt design systems: A centralized library of components that can be shared across teams and projects to simplify design and development while ensuring consistent brand experiences, at scale.

More than five million developers worldwide use Ionic Framework to tackle development of consumer-facing and internal enterprise applications—using one shared codebase across platforms. This level of efficiency is especially critical for companies today given the increasing demand from consumers to build connected digital experiences. Previous versions of Ionic Framework were based on Angular components and only worked with the Angular front-end framework. With the 4.0 release, Ionic has rebuilt its entire UI library using Web Components, a set of standardized APIs that make it possible to build fast, feature-rich apps that are natively supported in any modern browser on all major platforms, and are compatible with any front-end framework.

Ionic 4.0’s foundation in Web Components makes it possible for developers to build for any platform or device, no matter the tooling or front-end technologies involved. The benefits of this for individuals and enterprises, alike, include:

  1. A customizable component library that works across teams and projects: Of all cross-platform approaches, only Ionic 4.0 provides UI components that are truly customizable, reusable, and shareable across all types of applications, including iOS, Android, Desktop (Electron), and the Web (Progressive Web Apps, etc.).
  2. Faster load times and smaller sizes: The shift to Web Components means that apps built with Ionic will load significantly faster and work better in low-bandwidth environments. On top of that, the 4.0 version adds smart defaults to improve load times. Put together, these improvements have helped Ionic achieve a 100/100 in Google’s Lighthouse score for application speed and performance.
  3. Technical agility to close the talent gap: Due to the flexibility of open web standards, Ionic now give developers and teams the freedom to build with the current and emerging tools they love, including Angular, React, and Vue; thus insulating enterprises from “framework churn” and making it easier to hire and retain developer talent.

“When we look at what’s happening in the world of front-end development, we see two major industry shifts,” said Max Lynch, co-founder and CEO of Ionic. “First, there’s a recognition that the proliferation of proprietary components has slowed down development and created design inconsistencies that hurt users and brands alike. More and more enterprises are recognizing the need to adopt a design system: a single design spec, or library of reusable components, that can be shared across a team or company. Second, with the constantly evolving development ecosystem, we recognized the need to make Ionic compatible with whatever framework developers wanted to use—now and in the future. Rebuilding our Framework on Web Components was a way to address both of these challenges and future-proof our technology in a truly unique way.”

Along with the Framework, Ionic offers a powerful set of tools and services to help enterprise teams address the need for digital experiences, from Studio, its localized development environment, to Appflow, a mobile DevOps solution, and Enterprise Engine, a fully-supported version of the Ionic development ecosystem.

Ionic Framework 4.0 is now available to use with Google’s Angular web application framework, including support for Angular tooling, such as the Angular CLI and Router. Versions of Ionic with Vue and React are currently in alpha.

About Ionic

Ionic is an open source UI toolkit and developer platform that makes it simple to build, test, and deploy stunning, high-performance apps for any platform or device—all using a single codebase. Since its inception in 2013, Ionic Framework has become the #1 adopted cross-platform hybrid development framework in the world, serving a vibrant community of more than 5 million developers in over 200 countries. Ionic’s open source Framework is best known for its developer-friendly tools and services, which have helped build and power notable cross-platform apps for consumer brands like Sworkit, Shipt, and MarketWatch as well as mission-critical apps for companies like NASA and Nationwide. For more information about Ionic and its suite of tools, visit ionicframework.com.

How to Install the Ionic

Install Ionic

npm install -g ionic

First, install Node.js. Then, install the latest Ionic command-line tools in your terminal. Follow the Android and iOS platform guides to install required tools for development.

Start an app

ionic start myApp tabs

Create an Ionic App using one of our ready-made app templates, or a blank one to start fresh. Check out the Market for more designs.

For v1 projects, use the --type ionic1 flag.
  1. $ ionic start myApp blank
  2. $ ionic start myApp tabs
  3. $ ionic start myApp sidemenu

Run your app

cd myApp ionic serve

Much of your app can be built right in the browser with ionic serve. We recommend starting with this workflow.

When you're ready to deploy your app to a real device, check out our Deploying guide.

what is amazon elastic compute cloud

What Is Amazon EC2?

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) provides scalable computing capacity in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. Using Amazon EC2 eliminates your need to invest in hardware up front, so you can develop and deploy applications faster. You can use Amazon EC2 to launch as many or as few virtual servers as you need, configure security and networking, and manage storage. Amazon EC2 enables you to scale up or down to handle changes in requirements or spikes in popularity, reducing your need to forecast traffic.

Features of Amazon EC2

Amazon EC2 provides the following features:

  • Virtual computing environments, known as instances
  • Preconfigured templates for your instances, known as Amazon Machine Images (AMIs), that package the bits you need for your server (including the operating system and additional software)
  • Various configurations of CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity for your instances, known as instance types
  • Secure login information for your instances using key pairs (AWS stores the public key, and you store the private key in a secure place)
  • Storage volumes for temporary data that’s deleted when you stop or terminate your instance, known as instance store volumes
  • Persistent storage volumes for your data using Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), known as Amazon EBS volumes
  • Multiple physical locations for your resources, such as instances and Amazon EBS volumes, known as Regions and Availability Zones
  • A firewall that enables you to specify the protocols, ports, and source IP ranges that can reach your instances using security groups
  • Static IPv4 addresses for dynamic cloud computing, known as Elastic IP addresses
  • Metadata, known as tags, that you can create and assign to your Amazon EC2 resources
  • Virtual networks you can create that are logically isolated from the rest of the AWS cloud, and that you can optionally connect to your own network, known as virtual private clouds(VPCs)